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Thursday, April 21, 2011

The Open Boat by Stephen Crane - Short story - Lênh đênh - truyện ngắn

The Open Boat by Stephen Crane - Short story - Lênh đênh - truyện ngắn


Our story today is called “The Open Boat.” It was written by Stephen Crane and is based on what really happened to him in eighteen ninety-six.

Crane was traveling from the United States to Cuba as a newspaper reporter. One night, his ship hit a sandbar. It sank in the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Florida. Most of the people on board got into lifeboats. Crane was among the last to leave. There were three others with him: the ship’s captain, the cook, and a sailor.

These four men climbed into the only remaining lifeboat. The boat was so small that no one believed it could stay afloat for very long. None of the four men thought he would ever reach the shore. But the men fought the seas bravely, with all their strength. Would they finally reach land? Here is Shep O’Neal with the first part of the story.


SHEP O’NEAL: The small lifeboat bounced from wave to wave in the rough seas of the Atlantic. The four men in the boat could not see the sky. The waves rose too high.

The waves with their white tops pushed at the open boat with angry violence. Every man thought each wave would be his last. Surely, the boat would sink and he would drown. The men thought that most adults would need a bathtub larger than the boat they were sailing. The waves were huge, and each created a problem in guiding the direction of the boat.

For two days, since the ship sank, the four men had been struggling to reach land. But there was no land to be seen. All the men saw were violent waves which rose and came fiercely down on them.

The men sat in the boat, wondering if there was any hope for them. The ship’s cook sat in the bottom of the boat. He kept looking at the fifteen centimeters which separated him from the ocean.

The boat had only two wooden oars. They were so thin – it seemed as if they would break against the waves. The sailor, named Billie, directed the boat’s movement with one of the oars. The newspaper reporter pulled the second oar. He wondered why he was there in the boat.

The fourth man was the captain of the ship that had sunk. He lay in the front of the small boat. His arm and leg were hurt when the ship sank. The captain’s face was sad. He had lost his ship and many of his sailors. But he looked carefully ahead, and he told Billie when to turn the boat.

“Keep her a little more south, Billie,” he said.

“A little more south, sir,” the sailor repeated.

Sitting in the boat was like sitting on a wild horse. As each wave came, the boat rose and fell, like a horse starting toward a fence too high to jump. The problem was that after successfully floating over one wave you find that there is another one behind it just as strong and ready to flood your boat.

As each wall of water came in, it hid everything else that the men could see. The waves came in silence; only their white tops made threatening noises.

In the weak light, the faces of the men must have looked gray. Their eyes must have shone in strange ways as they looked out at the sea. The sun rose slowly into the sky. The men knew it was the middle of the day because the color of the sea changed from slate gray to emerald green, with gold lights. And the white foam on the waves looked like falling snow.


As the lifeboat bounced from the top of each wave, the wind tore through the hair of the men. As the boat dropped down again the water fell just past them. The top of each wave was a hill, from which the men could see, for a brief period, a wide area of shining sea.

The cook said the men were lucky because the wind was blowing toward the shore. If it started blowing the other way, they would never reach land. The reporter and the sailor agreed. But the captain laughed in a way that expressed humor and tragedy all in one. He asked: “Do you think we’ve got much of a chance now, boys?”

This made the others stop talking. To express any hope at this time they felt to be childish and stupid. But they also did not want to suggest there was no hope. So they were silent.

“Oh, well,” said the captain, “We’ll get ashore all right.”

But there was something in his voice that made them think, as the sailor said: “Yes, if this wind holds!”

Seagulls flew near and far. Sometimes the birds sat down on the sea in groups, near brown seaweed that rolled on the waves. The anger of the sea was no more to them than it was to a group of chickens a thousand miles away on land. Often the seagulls came very close and stared at the men with black bead-like eyes. The men shouted angrily at them, telling them to be gone.

The sailor and the reporter kept rowing with the thin wooden oars. Sometimes they sat together, each using an oar. Sometimes one would pull on both oars while the other rested. Brown pieces of seaweed appeared from time to time. They were like islands, bits of earth that did not move. They showed the men in the boat that it was slowly making progress toward land.


Hours passed. Then, as the boat was carried to the top of a great wave, the captain looked across the water.

He said that he saw the lighthouse at Mosquito Inlet. The cook also said he saw it. The reporter searched the western sky.

“See it?” said the captain.

“No,” said the reporter slowly, “I don’t see anything.”

“Look again,” said the captain. He pointed. “It’s exactly in that direction.”

This time the reporter saw a small thing on the edge of the moving horizon. It was exactly like the point of a pin.

“Think we’ll make it, captain?” he asked.

“If this wind holds and the boat doesn’t flood, we can’t do much else,” said the captain.


It would be difficult to describe the brotherhood of men that was here established on the sea. Each man felt it warmed him. They were a captain, a sailor, a cook and a reporter. And they were friends. The reporter knew even at the time that this friendship was the best experience of his life.

All obeyed the captain. He was a good leader. He always spoke in a low voice and calmly.

“I wish we had a sail,” he said, “to give you two boys a chance to rest.” So they used his coat and one of the oars to make a sail and the boat moved much more quickly.

The lighthouse had been slowly growing larger. At last, from the top of each wave the men in the boat could see land. Slowly, the land seemed to rise from the sea. Soon, the men could see two lines, one black and one white.

They knew that the black line was formed by trees, and the white line was the sand. At last, the captain saw a house on the shore. And the lighthouse became even larger.

“The keeper of the lighthouse should be able to see us now,” said the captain. “He’ll notify the life-saving people.”

Slowly and beautifully, the land rose from the sea. The wind came again. Finally, the men heard a new sound – the sound of waves breaking and crashing on the shore.

“We’ll never be able to make the lighthouse now,” said the captain. “Swing her head a little more north, Billie.”

“A little more north, sir,” said the sailor.

The men watched the shore grow larger. They became hopeful. In an hour, perhaps, they would be on land. The men struggled to keep the boat from turning over.

They were used to balancing in the boat. Now they rode this wild horse of a boat like circus men. The water poured over them.

The reporter thought he was now wet to the skin. But he felt in the top pocket of his coat and found eight cigars. Four were wet, but four were still dry. One of the men found some dry matches. Each man lit a cigar. The four men sailed in their boat with the belief of a rescue shining in their eyes. They smoked their big cigars and took a drink of water.


BARBARA KLEIN: You have been listening to the first part of the American short story, “The Open Boat,” by Stephen Crane. This program was adapted for Special English by Shelley Gollust and produced by Lawan Davis. Your storyteller was Shep O’Neal.

Join us again next week when we tell you the second and last part of the story. You can read and listen to other AMERICAN STORIES on our Web site, I’m Barbara Klein.



We continue the story of “The Open Boat” by Stephen Crane. As we told you last week, the story is based on true events. In eighteen ninety-six, Crane was traveling to Cuba as a news reporter. On his way there, his ship sank in the Atlantic Ocean. Crane climbed into the last remaining lifeboat.

Three men got into the boat with him. They were the ship’s captain, the cook and a sailor named Billie. For three days, the men steered the small boat through high waves along the coast of Florida. At last, they saw land. Here is Shep O’Neal with the final part of the story.


SHEP O’NEAL: A long stretch of coast lay before the eyes of the men. Slowly, the land rose up out of the mountainous sea. The men could see a small house against the sky. To the south, they could see a lighthouse. Tide, wind and waves were pushing the lifeboat northward. The men thought someone on land would have seen the boat by now.

“Well,” said the captain, “I suppose we’ll have to attempt to reach the shore ourselves. If we stay out here too long, none of us will have the strength left to swim after the boat sinks.”

So Billie the sailor turned the boat straight for the shore.

“If we don’t all get ashore,” said the captain, “I suppose you fellows know where to send news of my death?”

The men then exchanged some information. There was a great deal of anger in them. They thought: “If I am going to be drowned, why, in the name of the seven mad gods who rule the sea, was I permitted to come this far and think about sand and trees?”

The waves grew stronger. They seemed always just about to break and roll over the little boat. The coast was still far away. The sailor said: “Boys, the boat won’t live three minutes more, and we’re too far out to swim. Shall I take her to sea again, captain?”

“Yes! Go ahead!” said the captain. The sailor turned the boat and took her safely out to sea again.

“It’s funny those life-saving people haven’t seen us,” one of the men said.

“Maybe they think we’re out here for sport! Maybe they think we’re fishing. Maybe they think we’re fools.”

Once more, the sailor rowed the boat and then the reporter rowed. Suddenly, they saw a man walking along the shore.

The man stopped walking. He moved his hand in the air to wave at them. He saw them! Now he was running to the house.

The captain tied a cloth to a stick and waved it. Now there was another man on the shore. The two men waved their hands in the air, as if they were saying hello to the men in the boat.

Now, what was that moving on the shore? It was a bus – a hotel bus. A man stood on the steps of the bus and waved his coat over his head. The men in the boat wondered what he wanted to say. Was he attempting to tell them something? Should they wait for help? Should they go north? Should they go south?

The men waited and waited but nothing happened. The sun began to go down. It got dark and cold. They could no longer see anyone on the beach.


The sailor rowed, and then the reporter rowed, and then the sailor rowed again. They rowed and rowed through the long night. The land had disappeared but they could hear the low sound of the waves hitting the shore. This was surely a quiet night.

The cook finally spoke: “Billie, what kind of pie do you like best?”

“Pie,” said the sailor and the reporter angrily. “Don’t talk about those things!”

“Well,” said the cook, “I was just thinking about ham sandwiches, and …”

A night on the sea in an open boat is a long night. The sailor continued to row until his head fell forward and sleep overpowered him. Then he asked the reporter to row for a while. They exchanged places so the sailor could sleep in the bottom of the boat with the cook and the captain.

The reporter thought that he was the one man afloat on all the oceans in the world. The wind had a sad voice as it came over the waves.

Suddenly, there was a long, loud swishing sound behind the boat and a shining trail of silvery blue. It might have been made by a huge knife. Then there was another swish and another long flash of bluish light, this time alongside the boat. The reporter saw a huge fin speed like a shadow through the water, leaving a long glowing trail. The thing kept swimming near the boat. He noted its speed and power. The reporter wished the men would wake up. He did not want to be alone with the shark.

The reporter thought as he rowed. He was angry that they had come so close to land and yet might still die at sea. Then he remembered a poem that he had learned as a child. It was a poem about a soldier of the French Foreign Legion. The soldier lay dying in Algiers. Just before he died, he cried out: “I shall never see my own, my native land.” And now, many years after he had learned this poem, the reporter for the first time understood the sadness of the dying soldier.

Hours passed. The reporter asked the sailor to take the oars so that he could rest. It seemed like only a brief period, but it was more than an hour later, when the sailor returned the oars to the reporter. They both knew that only they could keep the boat from sinking. And so they rowed, hour after hour, through the night.


When day came, the four men saw land again. But there were no people on the shore. A conference was held on the boat.

“Well,” said the captain, “if no help is coming, we might better try to reach the shore right away. If we stay out here much longer, we will be too weak to do anything for ourselves at all.”

The others agreed. They began to turn the boat toward the beach. The captain told them to be careful – that when the boat came near the beach, the waves would sink it. Then everyone should jump out of the boat and swim to the shore.

As the boat came closer to land, the waves got bigger and more violent. At last, a large wave climbed into the air and fell on the small boat with great force.

The boat turned over as the men jumped into the sea. The water was like ice. The reporter was tired. But he swam toward the beach. He looked for his friends.

He saw Billie, the sailor, in front of him, swimming strongly and quickly. The cook was near him. Behind, the captain held on to the overturned boat with his one good hand. Soon, the reporter could swim no longer. A current was carrying him back out to sea. He thought: “Am I going to drown? Can it be possible?”

But the current suddenly changed and he was able to swim toward the shore. The captain called to him to swim to the boat and hold on. The reporter started to swim toward the boat. Then he saw a man running along the shore. He was quickly taking off his shoes and clothes.

As the reporter got close to the boat, a large wave hit him and threw him into the air over the boat and far from it. When he tried to get up, he found that the water was not over his head, only half way up his body. But he was so tired that he could not stand up. Each wave threw him down, and the current kept pulling him back to sea.

Then he saw the man again, jumping into the water. The man pulled the cook to the shore. Then he ran back into the water for the captain. But the captain waved him away and sent him to the reporter. The man seized the reporter’s hand and pulled him to the beach. Then the man pointed to the water and cried: “What’s that?”

In the shallow water, face down, lay Billie, the sailor.


The reporter did not know all that happened after that. He fell on the sand as if dropped from a housetop. It seems that immediately the beach was filled with men with blankets, clothes and whiskey. Women brought hot coffee. The people welcomed the men from the sea to the land.

But a still and dripping shape was carried slowly up the beach. And the land’s welcome for the sailor’s body could only be its final resting place. When night came, the white waves moved in the moonlight. The wind brought the sound of the great sea’s voice to the men on the shore.


BARBARA KLEIN: “The Open Boat” was written by Stephen Crane. This program was adapted for Special English by Shelley Gollust and produced by Lawan Davis. Your storyteller was Shep O’Neal. You can read and listen to other AMERICAN STORIES on our Web site, I’m Barbara Klein.

Computer Software in Plain English Phần mềm máy tính Tiếng Anh đơn giản

Computer Software in Plain English

Phần mềm máy tính Tiếng Anh đơn giản

First, a quick message from Common Craft.

This video comes in versions designed for use in training and education.

Find them at

It's easy to think of computers as just machinery -

buttons, screens and parts that work together.

But the magic of computers

comes from something that makes them unique to you.

This is Computer Software in Plain English.

The problem with computers

is that most of us don’t speak their language.

We need a translator,

something that can understand our needs

and put the computer to work for us.

The translator is called software

and it makes computers useful.

Look at it this way.

Like a typewriter,

a computer without software is just a lifeless machine.

By adding software,

the computer becomes more alive,

easy to use,

and built for you.

Most computers have two basic kinds:

The operating system and software programs.

If you’ve ever used a computer,

you’ve used an operating system.

From saving files,

to using a mouse or fixing problems,

the operating system covers the basics.

Operating systems come with all new computers

and do a lot of same things.

You’ve seen them called

Windows, Mac and Linux.

But the operating system is only part of what we need.

To make them personalized and more useful,

we can add software programs.

For example,

if you need to edit a photo

you can add a software program

that is built for that purpose.

If you need to design a house,

you can add a software program

that lets you see the house from all sides.

By adding and removing software programs,

you can make the computer fit

with exactly what you want to do.

And adding most software programs is easy.

You can get them from a computer store

or download them from the Internet.

No computer nerds required.

Once a program is on your computer,

opening it is as easy as clicking an icon.

But what is a software program?

What’s really happening when you open one?

Think about it this way.

Computers are really good at following instructions.

And a software program

is essentially a set of instructions

that tells the computer exactly what to do.

When you open a program,

the computer goes to work,

completing the instructions

until the program is ready for you to use.

The ability to add and remove software programs

means that everyone’s computer

can be different and unique to them.

So, to review.

We’ve talked about operating systems

that take care of the basics,

and software programs that make computers personalized.

It’s this combination that makes computers so useful.

But it’s not limited to computers on your desk.

Consider your cell phone.

Just like a computer without software,

it’s a lifeless machine that doesn’t speak our language.

Thankfully, cell phones have software

that bring them to life.

The same thing is true for many cameras,

music players, and even our cars.

Every day we rely on software

to bring machines to life

and make them personalized and useful.

The next time you use a computer or cell phone,

think about software’s role

in translating your needs

into instructions that put the machine to work for you.

I’m Lee LeFever of Common Craft,

and this has been Computer Software in Plain English.

Translated by

What is Software?

Software is the general term for information that's recorded onto some kind of medium. For example, when you go to the video store and rent or buy a tape or DVD, what you're really getting is the software that's stored on that tape or disk. Your VCR or DVD player are hardware devices that are capable of reading the software from a tape or disk and projecting it onto your TV screen, in the form of a movie.

Your computer is a hardware device that reads software too. Most of the software on your computer comes in the form of programs. A program consists of "instructions" that tell the computer what to do, how to behave. Just as there are thousands of albums you can buy on CD for your stereo, and thousands of movies you can buy to play on your VCR or DVD player, there are thousands of programs that you can buy to run on your computer.

When you buy a computer, you don't automatically get every program produced by every software company in the world. You usually get some programs. For example, when you buy a computer it will probably have an operating system (like Windows XP) already installed on it.

If you do purchase a specific program, it would be to perform some specific task. For example, you might use a graphics program to touch up photos, or you might use a word processingWeb browser program right now to read this text (assuming you're not reading a printed copy on paper). Just as there are umpteen different brands of toothpaste, there are umpteen different brands of word processing programs, graphics programs, and Web browsers. program to write text. You're using your

For example, all graphics programs are designed to help you work with pictures. But there are many brands of graphics programs out there, including Adobe Photoshop, Jasc Paint Shop Pro. Adobe Illustrator, Arcsoft PhotoStudio, Corel Draw, ULead PhotoImpact, PrintShop Photo, and Macromedia Freehand, just to name a few. As to Web browsers, popular brands include Microsoft Internet Explorer, MSN Explorer, Netscape Navigator, America Online, and a few others.

When you purchase a program, you get the program stored on a CD as in the example shown at left. You may not have seen any boxes containing software when you bought your computer. That's because the software that came with your computer has been pre-installed onto your computer's hard disk for you. You don't need to use the CD to run a program that's already installed on your computer. You only need to keep the CDs as backups, in case something goes wrong with your hard disk and you need to re-install the programs.

What Programs Do I Have?

Perhaps you're wondering what programs are installed on your computer. Usually when you buy a computer, they tell you what programs you're getting with it. So if you were to go back to the original ad from which you bought your computer, you'd probably find the names of programs you already have listed there. Though there's no need to do that, because every program that's currently installed on your computer is listed in your All Programs menu (assuming you're using Windows XP).

When you first open the Start menu, the left column lists programs you've used the most recently (Figure 1). If your computer is brand new, then the programs listed there will just be some examples.

Figure 1

That little list of program icons and names on the left side of the menu doesn't represent all the programs that are currently installed on your computer. Not by a long shot. The All Programs option on the Start menu provides access to all your installed programs. When you first click on (or just point to) the All Programs option, the All Programs menu that appears (Figure 2) will show icons and name of program groups, as well as some programs.

Figure 2

It's easy to tell the difference between a program and a program group. The program groups all have the same icon, and all have a right-pointing triangle (4) at their right side. When you click on, or point to, a program group, icons and names of programs within that group appear on a submenu. The submenu will contain programs within that group, and perhaps some more program groups. For example, Figure 3 shows the result of clicking on the Accessories program group in the All Programs menu. The submenu that opens contains more program groups, and specific programs you can run.

Figure 3

Your Start menu won't look exactly like the one shown in the figures, because different computers have different programs installed. (Just like different people who own CD players own different CDs).

Running Programs

When you click on the icon for a program, the program opens. Which means the program appears on the screen, so you can use it. Each program will appear in its own program window Windows desktop. For example, in Figure 4 the photograph in the background is the Windows desktop. Floating about on top of that desktop are four different program, each in its own separate program window. on the

Figure 4

Elements of Program Windows

While not two programs are exactly alike, most program windows contain certain similar elements. Stretched across the top of the program window is the title bar, which usually shows the name of the program that's inside the program window. Beneath the title bar is the menu bar, which gives you access to the tools and capabilities of that specific program. Many programs have a toolbar under their menu bar. The toolbar provides quick one-click access to frequently-used commands in the menu bar. The status bar at the bottom of a program provides general information. Figure 5 shows, in animated form, the title bar, menu bar, toolbar, and status bar of several different sample programs.

Figure 5

What's Available?

If you ever want to get an idea of the different types of programs that are available for your Windows XP computer, just go to any large computer store, or even a large office supply store like Staples, and take a look at the computer software. Or, you could even go into a large bookstore and look at the computer books sections. There will probably be a ton of books -- all for different programs like Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, WordPerfect, and of course Windows XP.

If you're comfortable using the World Wide Web, you can check our programs that are available by visiting the Windows Catalog Web site at:

When you get to the Windows Catalog home page, click on the Software tab near the top of the page. Then click on the various categories of programs at the left side of the page (Figure 6). Each will display a submenu if types of programs within that category. You can click on any subcategory name to view programs within that subcategory. Or you can just click on any category name in that left column.

Figure 6

Keep in mind that there's a huge difference between viewing programs on your own Start menu, and viewing programs at the Windows Product Catalog Web site or a computer store. Programs on your Start menu are already installed on your computer and ready for you to use. Programs in a store or presented on the Windows Catalog Web site are programs you could buy and install on your computer.

Remember, software is to a computer as music is to a CD player, or as a movie is to a VCR. There are thousands of programs available for your PC, and no two people have exactly the same programs on their computers. The programs that are installed on your computer can all be found, and started from, the All Programs menu (or some program group that's accessible from All Programs menu). Windows XP, the topic of this course, is software too.

Alan Simpson

Computer Hardware in Plain English Phần cứng máy tính – Tiếng Anh đơn giản

Computer Hardware in Plain English

Phần cứng máy tính – Tiếng Anh đơn giản

If you’re like most people, computers are becoming a part of your life,

and it helps to know how they work.

They seem complicated inside,

but by understanding just a few parts,

you can see a simpler side of computers.

This is Computer Hardware in Plain English.

You’ve seen them. They come in all shapes and sizes,

but work pretty much in the same ways.

In fact, if you could look inside these computers,

they’d have the same basic parts.

It’s these parts, the hardware,

that do a lot of the work in computers.

To explain, let’s look at something you already know, a house.

One of the great things about living in a house

is that you have room for all of your stuff.

In fact, many houses have basements that become the perfect place

for storing things you want to use later.

And the bigger the basement, the more you can store.

The same thing is true for computers.

Instead of boxes and bicycles,

we need a place to store things like photos,

music, documents, and software.

In a computer, it’s not the basement, but a hard drive.

A computer’s hard drive

is where you keep all the things you want to use later.

And like basements,

the bigger the hard drive, the more you can store.

But basements aren’t perfect.

Going to the basement takes too much time whenever you need something.

Closets on the main floor can help.

They’re small, and make things easier to access when you need them.

You don’t need to go all the way downstairs.

It’s the same with computers.

Some of the information stored on computers

is hard for the computer to open quickly

because it needs to take the long way.

To solve this problem computers use RAM

or Random Access Memory.

It makes information easier for the computer to access.

This means RAM makes computers faster.

Plus, this kind of closet gets cleaned out

every time you restart your computer.

Of course, houses have all kinds of parts

that need to work together.

It would help to have someone like a butler in the house

making sure the house is always in working order.

If it’s too hot,

maybe the air conditioning needs adjustment.

When it’s dark, lights are needed.

Computers need this too.

Something has to make sure all the parts run smoothly.

In computers, this is called the processor.

It’s a tiny part

that’s like the butler of the computer.

It sends and receives information,

completes tasks and puts the software to work.

And the faster it can complete tasks,

the faster your computer will be.

So, let’s review.

The hard drive is like a basement.

It stores all the things you need for later.

RAM is like a closet on the main floor.

It makes some information quick and easy to access.

And the processor is like having a butler around

always completing tasks

and making things work together.

The next time you use a computer,

think about what’s happening under the hood.

Computer hardware is working together

to help you get things done.

I’m Lee LeFever of Common Craft

and this has been Computer Hardware in Plain English.

Do you need this for work?

Translated by

What is Hardware?

Your PC (Personal Computer) is a system, consisting of many components. Some of those components, like Windows XP, and all your other programs, are software. The stuff you can actually see and touch, and would likely break if you threw it out a fifth-story window, is hardware.

Not everybody has exactly the same hardware. But those of you who have a desktop system, like the example shown in Figure 1, probably have most of the components shown in that same figure. Those of you with notebook computers probably have most of the same components. Only in your case the components are all integrated into a single book-sized portable unit.

Figure 1

The system unit is the actual computer; everything else is called a peripheral device. Your computer's system unit probably has at least one floppy disk drive, and one CD or DVD drive, into which you can insert floppy disks and CDs. There's another disk drive, called the hard disk inside the system unit, as shown in Figure 2. You can't remove that disk, or even see it. But it's there. And everything that's currently "in your computer" is actually stored on that hard disk. (We know this because there is no place else inside the computer where you can store information!).

Figure 2

The floppy drive and CD drive are often referred to as drives with removable media or removable drives for short, because you can remove whatever disk is currently in the drive, and replace it with another. Your computer's hard disk can store as much information as tens of thousands of floppy disks, so don't worry about running out of space on your hard disk any time soon. As a rule, you want to store everything you create or download on your hard disk. Use the floppy disks and CDs to send copies of files through the mail, or to make backup copies of important items.

Random Access Memory (RAM)

There's too much "stuff" on your computer's hard disk to use it all at the same time. During the average session sitting at the computer, you'll probably use only a small amount of all that's available. The stuff you're working with at any given moment is stored in random access memory (often abbreviated RAM, and often called simply "memory"). The advantage using RAM to store whatever you're working on at the moment is that RAM is very fast. Much faster than any disk. For you, "fast" translates to less time waiting and more time being productive.

So if RAM is so fast, why not put everything in it? Why have a hard disk at all? The answer to that lies in the fact that RAM is volatile. As soon as the computer is shut off, whether intentionally or by an accidental power outage, every thing in RAM disappears, just as quickly as a light bulb goes out when the plug is pulled. So you don't want to rely on RAM to hold everything. A disk, on the other hand, holds its information whether the power is on or off.

The Hard Disk

All of the information that's "in your computer", so to speak, is stored on your computer's hard disk. You never see that actual hard disk because it's sealed inside a special housing and needs to stay that way. Unlike RAM, which is volatile, the hard disk can hold information forever -- with or without electricity. Most modern hard disks have tens of billions of bytes of storage space on them. Which, in English, means that you can create, save, and download files for months or years without using up all the storage space it provides.

In the unlikely event that you do manage to fill up your hard disk, Windows will start showing a little message on the screen that reads "You are running low on disk space" well in advance of any problems. In fact, if that message appears, it won't until you're down to about 800 MB of free space. And 800 MB of empty space is equal to about 600 blank floppy disks. That's still plenty of room!

The Mouse

Obviously you know how to use your mouse, since you must have used it to get here. But let's take a look at the facts and buzzwords anyway. Your mouse probably has at least two buttons on it. The button on the left is called the primary mouse button, the button on the right is called the secondary mouse button or just the right mouse button. I'll just refer to them as the left and right mouse buttons. Many mice have a small wheel between the two mouse buttons, as illustrated in Figure 3.

Figure 3

The idea is to rest your hand comfortably on the mouse, with your index finger touching (but not pressing on) the left mouse button. Then, as you move the mouse, the mouse pointer (the little arrow on the screen) moves in the same direction. When moving the mouse, try to keep the buttons aimed toward the monitor -- don't "twist" the mouse as that just makes it all the harder to control the position of the mouse pointer.

If you find yourself reaching too far to get the mouse pointer where you want it to be on the screen, just pick up the mouse, move it to where it's comfortable to hold it, and place it back down on the mousepad or desk. The buzzwords that describe how you use the mouse are as follows:

  • Point: To point to an item means to move the mouse pointer so that it's touching the item.

  • Click: Point to the item, then tap (press and release) the left mouse button.

  • Double-click: Point to the item, and tap the left mouse button twice in rapid succession - click-click as fast as you can.

  • Right-click: Point to the item, then tap the mouse button on the right.

  • Drag: Point to an item, then hold down the left mouse button as you move the mouse. To drop the item, release the left mouse button.

  • Right-drag: Point to an item, then hold down the right mouse button as you move the mouse. To drop the item, release the right mouse button.

The Keyboard

Like the mouse, the keyboard is a means of interacting with your computer. You really only need to use the keyboard when you're typing text. Most of the keys on the keyboard are laid out like the keys on a typewriter. But there are some special keys like Esc (Escape), Ctrl (Control), and Alt (Alternate). There are also some keys across the top of the keyboard labeled F1, F2, F3, and so forth. Those are called the function keys, and the exact role they play depends on which program you happen to be using at the moment.

Most keyboards also have a numeric keypad with the keys laid out like the keys on a typical adding machine. If you're accustomed to using an adding machine, you might want to use the numeric keypad, rather than the numbers across the top of the keyboard, to type numbers. It doesn't really matter which keys you use. The numeric keypad is just there as a convenience to people who are accustomed to adding machines.

Figure 4

Most keyboards also contain a set of navigation keys. You can use the navigation keys to move around around through text on the screen. The navigation keys won't move the mouse pointer. Only the mouse moves the mouse pointer.

On smaller keyboards where space is limited, such as on a notebook computer, the navigation keys and numeric keypad might be one in the same. There will be a Num Lock key on the keypad. When the Num Lock key is "on", the numeric keypad keys type numbers. When the Num Lock key is "off", the navigation keys come into play. The Num Lock key acts as a toggle. Which is to say, when you tap it, it switches to the opposite state. For example, if Num Lock is on, tapping that key turns it off. If Num Lock is off, tapping that key turns Num Lock on.

Combination Keystrokes (Shortcut keys)

Those mysterious Ctrl and Alt keys are often used in combination with other keys to perform some task. We often refer to these combination keystrokes as shortcut keys, because they provide an alternative to using the mouse to select menu options in programs. Shortcut keys are always expressed as:


where the idea is to hold down key1, tap key2, then release key1. For example, to press Ctrl+Esc hold down the Ctrl key (usually with your pinkie), tap the Esc key, then release the Ctrl key. To press Alt+F you hold down the Alt key, tap the letter F, then release the Alt key.

Alan Simpson

Would you take the place of this man

Would you take the place of this man? Bạn có muốn thay chỗ Người hay không?

Jeremy Camp - This Man

In only a moment truth

Was seen revealed this mystery

The crown that showed no dignity he wore

And the king was placed for all the world

To show disgrace but only beauty flowed from this place

Would you take the place of this man

Would you take the nails from his hands

Would you take the place of this man

Would you take the nails from his hands

He held the weight of impurity

The father would not see

The reasons had finally come to be to

Show the depth of his grace flowed with

Every sin erased he knew that this was

Why he came

Would you take the place of this man

Would you take the nails from his hands

Would you take the place of this man

Would you take the nails from his hands

And we just don't know the blood and

Water flowed and in it all

He showes just how much he cares

And the veil was torn so we could have

This open door and all these things have

Finally been complete

Would you take the place of this man

Would you take the nails from his hands

Would you take the place of this man

Would you take the nails from his hands

From his hands

From his hands

From his hands




I and my colleagues Art Aron and Lucy Brown and others, have put 37 people who are madly in love into a functional MRI brain scanner. 17 who were happily in love, 15 who had just been dumped, and we're just starting our third experiment: studying people who report that they're still in love after 10 to 25 years of marriage. So, this is the short story of that research.

Tôi cùng hai đồng nghiệp Art Aron và Lucy Brown và những người khác, đã đưa 37 người đang yêu điên cuồng vào trong một máy quét MRI chức năng não. 17 người đang hạnh phúc trong tình yêu, 15 người vừa bị tình phụ, và chúng tôi chỉ mới bắt đầu thử nghiệm thứ ba của chúng tôi: những người nghiên cứu báo cáo rằng họ vẫn còn trong tình yêu sau 10 đến 25 năm kết hôn. Vì vậy, đây là câu chuyện ngắn về nghiên cứu đó.

In the jungles of Guatemala, in Tikal, stands a temple. It was built by the grandest Sun King, of the grandest city state, of the grandest civilization of the Americas, the Mayas. His name was Jasaw Chan K'awiil. He stood over six feet tall. He lived into his 80s, and he was buried beneath this monument in 720 AD. And Mayan inscriptions proclaim that he was deeply in love with his wife. So, he built a temple in her honor, facing his. And every spring and autumn, exactly at the equinox, the sun rises behind his temple, and perfectly bathes her temple with his shadow. And as the sun sets behind her temple in the afternoon, it perfectly bathes his temple with her shadow. After 1,300 years, these two lovers still touch and kiss from their tomb.

Trong những khu rừng của Guatemala, ở Tikal, có một ngôi đền. Nó được xây dựng bởi ông vua Mặt Trời vỹ đại nhất, của quốc gia vỹ đại nhất, của nền văn minh vỹ đại nhất châu Mỹ, văn minh Maya. Tên của ông là Jasaw Chan K'awiil. Ông đứng trên đôi chân cao sáu phút. Ông sống đến những năm 80 tuổi, và ông được chôn cất bên dưới tượng đài này năm 720 AD. Và dòng chữ khắc của người Maya tuyên bố rằng ông yêu vợ sâu sắc. Vì vậy, ông đã xây dựng một ngôi đền để tôn vinh bà, đối diện với đền thờ của ông. Và mỗi mùa xuân và mùa thu, chính xác vào ngày xuân phân và thu phân, mặt trời mọc đằng sau đền thờ của ông, và hoàn che bóng ngôi đền của bà. Và khi mặt trời lặn phía sau ngôi đền của bà vào buổi chiều, nó hoàn toàn che bóng ngôi đền của ông. Sau 1.300 năm, hai người yêu vẫn âu yếm và hôn nhau từ trong mộ địa.

Around the world people love. They sing for love, they dance for love, they compose poems and stories about love. They tell myths and legends about love. They pine for love, they live for love, they kill for love, and they die for love. As Walt Whitman once said, he said, "Oh, I would stake all for you." Anthropologists have found evidence of romantic love in 170 societies. They've never found a society that did not have it.

Khắp thế giới người ta yêu nhau. Họ hát vì tình yêu, họ khiêu vũ vì yêu, họ sáng tác thơ ca và những câu chuyện về tình yêu. Họ kể chuyện thần thoại và truyền thuyết về tình yêu. Họ khắc khoải vì yêu, họ sống cho tình yêu, họ giết nhau vì tình yêu, và họ chết cho tình yêu. Như Walt Whitman đã từng nói, ông ấy nói, "Ồ, tôi đánh cược tất cả vì em." Các nhà nhân loại học đã tìm thấy bằng chứng của tình yêu lãng mạn ở 170 xã hội. Họ đã không bao giờ tìm thấy một xã hội mà không có tình yêu.

But love isn't always a happy experience. In one study of college students, they asked a lot of questions about love, but the two that stood out to me the most were, "Have you ever been rejected by somebody who you really loved?" And the second question was, "Have you ever dumped somebody who really loved you?" And almost 95 percent of both men and women said yes to both. Almost nobody gets out of love alive.

Nhưng tình yêu không luôn luôn là một kinh nghiệm hạnh phúc. Trong một nghiên cứu của sinh viên đại học, người ta hỏi nhiều câu hỏi về tình yêu, nhưng hai hai câu hỏi mà tôi chú ý nhất là, "Có bao giờ bạn bị từ chối bởi người nào đó mà bạn thực sự yêu thương?" Và câu hỏi thứ hai là, "Bạn đã bao giờ từ chối ai đó thực sự yêu thương bạn?" Và hầu như 95 phần trăm của cả nam giới và phụ nữ trả lời “Có” cho cả hai. Hầu như không có ai đi qua tình yêu mà không chết một lần.

So, before I start telling you about the brain, I want to read for you what I think is the most powerful love poem on Earth. There's other love poems that are, of course, just as good, but I don't think this one can be surpassed. It was told by an anonymous Kwakutl Indian of southern Alaska to a missionary in 1896, and here it is. I've never had the opportunity to say it before. "Fire runs through my body with the pain of loving you, pain runs through my body with the fires of my love for you. Pain like a boil about to burst with my love for you, consumed by fire with my love for you, I remember what you said to me. I am thinking of your love for me, I am torn by your love for me. Pain and more pain, where are you going with my love? I am told you will go from here. I am told you will leave me here. My body is numb with grief. Remember what I said, my love. Goodbye, my love, goodbye." Emily Dickinson once wrote, "Parting is all we need to know of hell." How many people have suffered in all the millions of years of human evolution? How many people around the world are dancing with elation at this very minute? Romantic love is one of the most powerful sensations on Earth.

Vì vậy, trước khi tôi bắt đầu nói chuyện với các bạn về bộ não, tôi muốn đọc cho bạn cái mà tôi cho là bài thơ tình mãnh liệt nhất trên trái đất. Có những bài thơ tình yêu khác nữa, tất nhiên, cũng hay như thế, nhưng tôi không nghĩ rằng bài thơ này có thể bị vượt qua. Nó đã được kể bởi một người đa đỏ ẩn danh thuộc bộ tộc Kwakutl ở miền nam Alaska cho một nhà truyền giáo vào năm 1896, và bài thơ thế này. Trước đây tôi đã không bao giờ có cơ hội để nói về nó. "Lửa chạy qua thân thể tôi với nỗi đau của lòng yêu thương em, đau chạy qua thân thể tôi với lủa tình yêu tôi dành cho em. Đau giống như một vết bỏng sắp vỡ với tình yêu của tôi dành cho em, thiêu cháy với tình yêu của tôi dành cho em, tôi nhớ những gì em đã nói với tôi. Tôi nghĩ về tình yêu em dành cho tôi, tôi tan nát bởi tình yêu của em dành cho tôi. Đau còn đau nhiều hơn, em sẽ mang tình yêu của tôi đi đâu? Người ta bảo tôi em sẽ ra đi từ đây. Người ta bảo tôi em sẽ bỏ tôi từ đây. Thân thể của tôi tê dại vì đớn đau. Hãy nhớ lấy lời tôi, em yêu. Tạm biệt tình yêu của tôi, tạm biệt." Emily Dickinson đã từng viết, "Chia tay là tất cả những gì chúng ta cần để biết thế nào là địa ngục." Hỏi có bao nhiêu người trên thế gian này đã phải khổ đau trong hàng triệu năm tiến hóa của loài người? Có bao nhiêu người trên thế giới đang nhảy múa với sự phấn khởi ngay giò phút này? Tình yêu lãng mạn là một trong những cảm giác mạnh mẽ nhất trên trái đất này.

So, several years ago, I decided to look into the brain and study this madness. Our first study of people who were happily in love has been widely publicized, so I'm only going to say a very little about it. We found activity in a tiny little factory near the base of the brain called the ventral tegmental area. We found activity in some cells called the A10 cells. Cells that actually make dopamine, a natural stimulant, and spray it to many brain regions. Indeed this part, the VTA, is part of the brain's reward system. It's way below your cognitive thinking process. It's below your emotions. It's part of what we call the reptilian core of the brain, associated with wanting, with motivation, with focus and with craving. In fact, the same brain region where we found activity becomes active also when you feel the rush of cocaine.

Vì vậy, vài năm trước đây, tôi quyết định xem xét bộ não để nghiên cứu sựu điên rồ này. nghiên cứu đầu tiên của chúng tôi về những người hạnh phúc trong tình yêu đã được công bố rộng rãi, vì vậy tôi chỉ sẽ chỉ nói chút ít về nó. Chúng tôi phát hiện hoạt động trong một bộ phận nhỏ gần phía dưới của bộ não gọi là vùng nhân chổm não bụng (ventral tegmental area VAT). Chúng tôi phát hiện hoạt động trong một số tế bào có tên là tế bào A10. Các tế bào mà thực sự tiết ra dopamine, một chất kích thích tự nhiên, và phun nó vào nhiều vùng não. Quả thực, bộ phận VAT, là một phần của hệ thống khen thưởng của não. Nó hoạt động bên dưới quá trình tư duy nhận thức của bạn. Nó nằm bên dưới cảm xúc của bạn dưới đây. Đó là một phần của cái chúng tôi gọi là lõi bò sát của não có liên quan tới ước muốn, với động cơ, hướng vào tiêu điểm và với lòng khao khát. Trong thực tế, cùng một vùng não nơi mà chúng tôi thấy có hoạt động cũng sẽ kích hoạt khi bạn cảm thấy thèm cocaine.

But romantic love is much more than a cocaine high -- at least you come down from cocaine. Romantic love is an obsession. It possesses you. You lose your sense of self. You can't stop thinking about another human being. Somebody is camping in your head. As an eighth-century Japanese poet said, "My longing had no time when it ceases." Wild is love. And the obsession can get worse when you've been rejected.

Nhưng tình yêu lãng mạn thì hơn nhiều so với cocaine tăng cao - ít ra thì bạn cũng xuống thang khi hết cocaine. Tình yêu lãng mạn là một nỗi ám ảnh. Nó sở hữu bạn. Bạn bị mất cảm giác về cái tôi của bạn. Bạn không thể ngừng suy nghĩ về người khác. Có ai đó đang dựng lều ở lại trong đầu bạn. Như một nhà thơ Nhật Bản thế kỷ thứ tám nói, "Khao khát của tôi không còn thời gian nữa khi nó ngưng lại." Tình yêu là điên dại. Và nỗi ám ảnh có thể tồi tệ hơn khi bạn đã bị từ chối.

So, right now, Lucy Brown and I, the neuroscientist on our project, are looking at the data of the people who were put into the machine after they had just been dumped. It was very difficult actually, putting these people in the machine, because they were in such bad shape. (Laughter) So anyway, we found activity in three brain regions. We found activity in the brain region, in exactly the same brain region associated with intense romantic love. What a bad deal. You know, when you've been dumped, the one thing you love to do is just forget about this human being, and then go on with your life, but no, you just love them harder. As the poet Terence, the Roman poet once said, he said, "The less my hope, the hotter my love." And indeed, we now know why. 2,000 years later, we can explain this in the brain. That brain system, the reward system for wanting, for motivation, for craving, for focus, becomes more active when you can't get what you want. In this case, life's greatest prize: an appropriate mating partner.

Vì vậy, ngay bây giờ, Lucy Brown và tôi, các nhà thần kinh học trong dự án của chúng tôi, đang tìm kiếm các dữ liệu của những người đã được đưa vào máy tính sau khi họ vừa bị tình yêu từ chối. Việc này thực sự rất khó khăn để đưa những người này trong cái máy, bởi vì họ đã được trong trình trạng tồi tệ như vậy. (Cười) Dù sao thì, chúng tôi đã thấy hoạt động trong ba vùng não. Chúng tôi thấy có hoạt động ở chính xác cái vùng não có liên quan với tình yêu lãng mạn dữ dội. Thật là một điều tồi tệ. Bạn biết đấy, khi bạn bị từ chối, điều mà bạn thích làm là chỉ cần quên đi cái con người ấy, và sau đó tiếp tục cuộc sống của bạn, nhưng không, bạn chỉ thấy yêu họ nhiều hơn. Như nhà thơ Terence, nhà thơ La Mã đã từng nói, ông viết, "Tôi hy vọng ít bao nhiêu, tình yêu tôi càng nồng chấy bấy nhiêu." Và quả thật, chúng ta biết tại sao. 2000 năm sau đó, chúng ta có thể giải thích điều này trong não. Đó là hệ thống não bộ, hệ thống khen thưởng cho mong muốn, cho động cơ, cho khao khát, cho tập trung, trở nên năng hơn khi bạn không thể có được những gì bạn muốn. Trong trường hợp này, giải thưởng lớn nhất của cuộc sống: một bạn tình thích hợp.

We found activity in other brain regions also -- in a brain region associated with calculating gains and losses. You know, you're lying there, you're looking at the picture, and you're in this machine, and you're calculating, you know, what went wrong. How, you know, what have I lost? As a matter of fact, Lucy and I have a little joke about this. It comes from a David Mamet play, and there's two con artists in the play, and the woman is conning the man, and the man looks at the woman and says, "Oh, you're a bad pony, I'm not going to bet on you." And indeed, it's this part of the brain, the core of the nucleus accumbens, that is becoming active as you're measuring your gains and losses. It's also the brain region that becomes active when you're willing to take enormous risks for huge gains and huge losses.

Chúng tôi cũng thấy các hoạt động ở các vùng não khác - trong một vùng não liên quan đến tính toán được và mất. Bạn biết không, bạn đang nằm ở đó, bạn đang xem bức tranh, và bạn đang ở trong cái máy này, và bạn đang tính toán, bạn có biết, điều gì sai không. Làm thế nào, bạn biết, tôi vừa mất những? Quả thực, Lucy và tôi có một câu chuyện đùa nhỏ về điều này. Nó xuất phát từ một vở kịch của David Mamet, và có hai nghệ sĩ bị lừa trong vở kịch, và người phụ nữ đã lừa gạt người đàn ông, và người đàn ông nhìn người phụ nữ và nói: "Ồ, em là một con ngựa kém, tôi sẽ không đặt cược vào em. " Và quả thực, chính phần này của bộ não, lõi của nhân áp ngoài nucleus accumbens, trở nê hoạt động như bạn đang đo lường những được và mất của bạn. Đây cũng chính là khu vực não mà được kích hoạt khi bạn sẵn sàng chấp nhận rủi ro rất lớn để đạt được rất lớn hoặc mất mát rất lớn.


Last but not least, we found activity in a brain region associated with deep attachment to another individual. No wonder people suffer around the world and we have so many crimes of passion. When you've been rejected in love, not only are you engulfed with feelings of romantic love, but you're feeling deep attachment to this individual. Moreover, this brain circuit for reward is working, and you're feeling intense energy, intense focus, intense motivation and the willingness to risk it all to win life's greatest prize.

So, what have I learned from this experiment that I would like to tell the world? Foremost, I have come to think that romantic love is a drive, a basic mating drive. Not the sex drive -- the sex drive gets you out there looking for a whole range of partners. Romantic love enables you to focus your mating energy on just one at a time, conserve your mating energy, and start the mating process with this single individual. I think of all the poetry that I've read about romantic love, what sums it up best is something that is said by Plato over 2,000 years ago. He said, "The god of love lives in a state of need. It is a need. It is an urge. It is a homeostatic imbalance. Like hunger and thirst, it's almost impossible to stamp out." I've also come to believe that romantic love is an addiction: a perfectly wonderful addiction when it's going well, and a perfectly horrible addiction when it's going poorly.

And indeed, it has all of the characteristics of addiction. You focus on the person, you obsessively think about them, you crave them, you distort reality, your willingness to take enormous risks to win this person. And it's got the three main characteristics of addiction. Tolerance --you need to see them more, and more, and more -- withdrawals, and last, relapse. I've got a girlfriend who's just getting over a terrible love affair, it's been about eight months, she's beginning to feel better. And she was driving along in her car the other day, and suddenly she heard a song on the car radio that reminded her of this man. And she -- not only did the instant craving come back, but she had to pull over from the side of the road and cry. So, one thing I would like the medical community, and the legal community, and even the college community, to see if they can understand, that indeed, romantic love is one of the most addictive substances on Earth.

I would also like to tell the world that animals love. There's not an animal on this planet that will copulate with anything that comes along. Too old, too young, too scruffy, too stupid, and they won't do it. Unless you're stuck in a laboratory cage -- and you know, if you spend your entire life in a little box, you're not going to be as picky about who you have sex with -- but I've looked in a hundred species, and everywhere in the wild, animals have favorites. As a matter of fact ethologists know this. There's over eight words for what they call animal favoritism: selective proceptivity, mate choice, female choice, sexual choice. And indeed, there are three academic articles in which they've looked at this attraction, which may only last for a second, but it's a definite attraction, and either this same brain region, this reward system, or the chemicals of that reward system are involved. In fact, I think animal attraction can be instant -- you can see an elephant instantly go for another elephant. And I think that this is really the origins of what you and I call, "love at first sight."

People have often asked me whether what I know about love has spoiled it for me. And I just simply say, hardly. You can know every single ingredient in a piece of chocolate cake, and then when you sit down and eat that cake, you can still feel that joy. And certainly I make all the same mistakes that everybody else does too, but it's really deepened my understanding and compassion, really, for all human life. As a matter of fact, in New York I often catch myself looking in baby carriages and feeling a little sorry for the tot, and in fact sometimes I feel a little sorry for the chicken on my dinner plate, when I think of how intense this brain system is. Our newest experiment has been hatched by my colleague, Art Aron, putting people who are reporting that they are still in love, in a long-term relationship, into the functional MRI. We've put five people in so far, and indeed, we found exactly the same thing. They're not lying. The brain areas associated with intense romantic love, still become active, 25 years later.

There are still many questions to be answered and asked about romantic love. The question that I'm working on right this minute, and I'm only going to say it for a second and then end, is why do you fall in love with one person, rather than another? I never would have even thought to think of this, but, the internet dating site, came to me three years ago and asked me that question. And I said, I don't know. I know what happens in the brain, when you do become in love, but I don't know why you fall in love with one person rather than another. And so, I've spent the last three years on this. And there's many reasons that you fall in love with one person rather than another, that psychologists can tell you. And we tend to fall in love with somebody from the same socioeconomic background, the same general level of intelligence, the same general level of good looks, the same religious values. Your childhood certainly plays a role but nobody knows how. And that's about it, that's all they know. No, they've never found the way two personalities fit together to make a good relationship.

So, it began to occur to me that maybe your biology pulls you towards some people rather than another. And I have concocted a questionnaire to see to what degree you express dopamine, serotonin, estrogen and testosterone. I think we've evolved four very broad personality types associated with the ratios of these four chemicals in the brain. And on this dating site that I have created, called I ask you first a series of questions to see to what degree you express these chemicals, and I'm watching who chooses who to love. And 3.7 million people have taken the questionnaire in America, about 600,000 people have taken it in 33 other countries. I'm putting the data together now, and at some point -- there will always be magic to love, but I think I will come closer to understanding why it is you can walk into a room and everybody is from your background, your same general level of intelligence, your same general level of good looks, and you don't feel pulled towards all of them. I think there's biology to that. I think we're going to end up in the next few years to understand all kinds of brain mechanisms that pull us to one person rather than another.

So, I will close with this. These are my older people. Faulkner once said, "The past is not dead, it's not even the past." Indeed, we carry a lot of luggage from our yesteryear in the human brain. And so there's one thing that makes me pursue my understanding of human nature, and this reminds me of it. These are two women. Women tend to get intimacy differently than men do. Women get intimacy from-face to-face talking. We swivel towards each other, we do what we call the "anchoring gaze" and we talk. This is intimacy to women. I think it comes from millions of years of holding that baby in front of your face, cajoling it, reprimanding it, educating it with words. Men tend to get intimacy from side-by-side doing, (Laughter) As soon as one guy looks up, the other guy will look away. (Laughter) I think it comes from millions of years of standing behind that -- sitting behind the bush, looking straight ahead, trying to hit that buffalo on the head with a rock. (Laughter) I think for millions of years men faced their enemies, they sat side by side with friends. So my final statement is: love is in us. It's deeply embedded in the brain. Our challenge is to understand each other. Thank you. (Applause)

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