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Monday, June 11, 2012

Easy Part Over for Vietnam Thời kỳ dễ dàng đã qua




Easy Part Over for Vietnam

Thời kỳ dễ dàng đã qua
By Bridget O'Flaherty

Bridget O'Flaherty
June 10, 2012

10-06-2012

The optimism during Vietnam's pre-2008 economic boom is over. 

Sự lạc quan trong thời kỳ bùng nổ kinh tế ở Việt Nam trong giai đoạn trước năm 2008 đã không còn nữa.

At one side of the large concrete Hoa Binh Market in Ho Chi Minh City's District 5 sits an “illegal market,” where vendors set up small light bulbs over their produce and meat and loop wires over the large umbrellas. On special occasions like public holidays, police may chase away or even arrest the several dozen of these vendors. Sometimes, goods are confiscated. But that's not their only problem now.

Một bên của ngôi chợ Hoà Bình kiên cố và rộng lớn ở quận 5, TP Hồ Chí Minh, là một “ngôi chợ trời”, nơi những người bán hàng lắp các bóng đèn nhỏ trên hàng hóa và thịt cá của họ, và dây điện quấn vòng qua những chiếc ô dù lớn. Trong những dịp đặc biệt như ngày lễ, cảnh sát có thể xua đuổi họ, thậm chí bắt giữ hàng chục người buôn bán này. Đôi khi, hàng hoá bị tịch thu. Nhưng đó không chỉ là vấn đề của họ hiện nay.


“Since last year our family's income is down 40 percent, it's almost half what it was,” says Phan Thi Khanh as she adjusts the iceberg lettuces rolling around loose in a shallow bamboo basket.


“Kể từ năm ngoái, thu nhập của gia đình chúng tôi đã giảm 40%, chỉ còn gần một nửa thu nhập trước đây”, cô Phan Thị Khánh nói, khi cô sắp sửa lại các bắp xà lách trong một cái rổ tre nông.


Khanh works 16 hours a day and says she takes home between 100,000VND to 200,000VND (about $5 to $10). She says her husband helps her out at work, while their sons work at local factories. They still live at home, she says, because rent is too expensive for them to afford their own places.

Cô Khánh làm việc 16 tiếng một ngày và nói rằng cô mang về nhà từ 100.000 – 200.000 đồng (khoảng 5 đến 10 đô la). Cô nói rằng chồng của cô giúp cô trong công việc buôn bán, trong khi các cậu con trai của họ làm việc tại các nhà máy địa phương. Cô nói, mấy đứa con trai vẫn sống chung trong nhà, bởi vì tiền thuê nhà quá mắc, chúng không đủ khả năng để ra ở riêng.


“Most of the buyers here are factory workers or people from outside provinces. Rich people don't shop here,” she says. “The prices have gone up, but the salary of workers hasn't, so they buy less.”

Cô nói: “ Hầu hết những người mua sắm ở đây là các công nhân nhà máy hoặc những người ngoại tỉnh. Người giàu chẳng mua sắm ở đây. Giá đã tăng, nhưng mức lương của người lao động không tăng, nên họ mua sắm ít hơn “.


Official figures are vague, but locals say strikes have been an increasing at factories over low wages and poor working conditions. Worries over wages have been exacerbated by spiraling inflation in recent years. Inflation peaked at 23 percent last August, before dropping to 18 percent at the beginning of 2012. But it was still stuck at more than 8 percent last month. Economic growth, meanwhile, has dipped again and is unlikely to surpass 5.2 percent this year , according to the government.


Không rõ con số chính thức, nhưng người dân địa phương nói rằng, các cuộc đình công tại các nhà máy ngày càng gia tăng, do mức lương thấp và điều kiện làm việc tồi tệ. Lo lắng về tiền lương càng trở nên trầm trọng hơn do lạm phát leo thang trong những năm gần đây. Lạm phát lên tới đỉnh điểm 23% hồi tháng 8 năm ngoái, trước khi giảm xuống còn 18% vào đầu năm 2012. Nhưng vẫn còn ở mức hơn 8% hồi tháng trước. Trong khi đó, tăng trưởng kinh tế một lần nữa đã giảm xuống và có vẻ như không vượt quá 5,2% trong năm nay , theo tin từ chính phủ.


The government is responding with plans for major reforms in three key sectors: the sluggish state-owned enterprise (SOE) sector, the banking sector and public investment. SOEs have lost money hand over fist for years. Indeed, state-owned shipping company Vinalines, which was said by state-owned media to have “wasted” a billion dollars, is only the most glaring example of many. Three of the firm's executives have been arrested in a sector estimated to make up as much as 40 percent of the economy.


Chính phủ đang đáp ứng qua kế hoạch cải cách lớn trong ba lĩnh vực chính: lĩnh vực doanh nghiệp nhà nước chậm chạp, lĩnh vực ngân hàng và đầu tư công. Doanh nghiệp nhà nước đã bị lỗ lã quá nhiều trong nhiều năm. Thật vậy, công ty vận tải biển Vinalines là doanh nghiệp nhà nước, mà các phương tiện truyền thông chính phủ cho biết, đã “lãng phí” một tỷ đô la, chỉ là ví dụ rõ ràng nhất trong nhiều doanh nghiệp nhà nước. Ba giám đốc điều hành của công ty đã bị bắt, trong một lĩnh vực kinh doanh ước tính chiếm khoảng 40% nền kinh tế.


Vietnam's national shipbuilder Vinashin, meanwhile, has flirted with bankruptcy after years of mismanagement. One of the problems identified was movement into “non-core” sectors, such as hotel management.


Trong khi đó, Tập đoàn Đóng tàu Vinashin đang đùa với trò phá sản sau nhiều năm quản lý yếu kém. Một trong những vấn đề được nhận diện là, công ty này đã chuyển hướng sang các thành phần kinh doanh “không căn bản”, như quản lý khách sạn.


In a recent report to the country's main legislative body – the National Assembly – the government said SOEs cut spending by close to $660 million over five years, ending late last year, according to local news.


Báo chí trong nước cho biết, trong một báo cáo gần đây gửi tới Quốc hội, cơ quan lập pháp của đất nước, chính phủ cho biết, các doanh nghiệp nhà nước đã cắt giảm chi tiêu gần 660 triệu đô la trong 5 năm, kết thúc vào cuối năm ngoái.


However, government officials are increasingly concerned at the massive losses of state money. Ho Chi Minh City NA representative Do Van Duong, for example, told Thanh Nien News : “It's time to investigate investments that cause huge losses of state money and hold accountable those responsible.” He said that the recent Vinashin and Vinalines cases were indicative of poor management of the sector.


Tuy nhiên, các quan chức chính phủ ngày càng quan tâm hơn đến những vụ làm ăn thua lỗ lớn của nhà nước. Chẳng hạn như, ông Đỗ Văn Đương, Đại biểu Quốc hội TP HCM, đã nói với báo Thanh Niên: “ Đã đến lúc phải khởi tố, điều tra những dự án làm thất thoát tài sản của đất nước, để quy trách nhiệm rõ ràng”. Ông nói rằng các trường hợp gần đây như Vinashin và Vinalines chính là sự quản lý kém của doanh nghiệp nhà nước.


Companies are now supposed to be required to publish earnings, though the plan is in its initial stages. But whatever the government says, it seems doubtful that real reform will happen anytime soon as SOEs resist change, foreign investment or restructuring. In addition, many (quietly) complain that government regulations ensure a large workforce in the state sector and free services for the poor, a problem, they lament, when trying to improve efficiency.


Các công ty hiện đang được yêu cầu phải công bố thu nhập, nhưng kế hoạch này chỉ đang ở giai đoạn đầu. Nhưng cho dù chính phủ có tuyên bố gì đi nữa, dường như cải cách thực sự sẽ không sớm xảy ra, khi các doanh nghiệp nhà nước đang chống lại sự thay đổi, đầu tư nước ngoài hay tái cấu trúc. Ngoài ra, nhiều người (âm thầm) than phiền rằng, các quy định của chính phủ để bảo đảm một lực lượng lao động lớn trong khu vực nhà nước và các dịch vụ [công] miễn phí cho người nghèo đang gặp vấn đề khó khăn, khi cố gắng nâng cao hiệu quả – họ than thở.


Last year, a number of local economists called the proposed changes the biggest since doi moi, the policy begun in 1986 that reopened the isolationist communist nation's economy, and a move that has been credited by many analysts as the real driving force behind the rapid economic growth of the past two decades.

Năm ngoái, một số nhà kinh tế trong nước đã đưa ra những lời đề nghị thay đổi lớn nhất kể từ thời kỳ đổi mới, một chính sách bắt đầu từ năm 1986, đã mở cửa trở lại nền kinh tế của đất nước cộng sản bị cô lập, và là một hành động được nhiều nhà phân tích ghi nhận như là một động lực thực sự đằng sau sự tăng trưởng kinh tế nhanh chóng trong hai thập niên qua.


Some observers, though, are skeptical about such talk. “Oh I'd love to see that,” says former US ambassador to Hanoi, Douglas “Pete” Peterson as talk of the comparisons with doi moi are broached in an interview. Peterson, who was a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War, was the first post-war US ambassador to Vietnam, serving from 1997 to 2001. “Doi Moi was a one-off, a massive decision, but it paid off in just about every way.”


Tuy nhiên, một số nhà quan sát hoài nghi về những điều như thế. Ông Douglas “Pete” Peterson , cựu Đại sứ Mỹ ở Hà Nội đã nói về sự so sánh với thời kỳ đổi mới trong một cuộc phỏng vấn: “Ồ, tôi rất muốn nhìn thấy điều đó”. Ông Peterson là một tù binh trong cuộc chiến Việt Nam và là Đại sứ Mỹ đầu tiên thời hậu chiến ở Việt Nam, phục vụ từ năm 1997-2001. “Đổi mới là một quyết định lớn, chỉ diễn ra một lần nhưng đã mang lại lợi ích về mọi mặt”.


And there were, he says, some immediate gains from the policy. “It stopped people starving. It gave farmers back land, productivity surged overnight and you had food security. People were starving to death in the street [before the reform],” Peterson says.


Ông nói rằng đã có một số lợi ích tức thì từ chính sách đó. Ông Peterson nói: “Người dân không còn bị đói. Nông dân được trả lại đất đai, năng suất gia tăng nhanh và mọi người được bảo đảm đủ lương thực. [Trước đổi mới], người dân có khi bị đói đến chết trên đường phố”.


Yet a quarter of a century later, consumer confidence is low. Indeed, according to market research company Cimigo, confidence dropped to an all-time low in October 2011.


Tuy nhiên, một phần tư thế kỷ sau đó, niềm tin của người tiêu dùng đã xuống thấp. Thật vậy, theo công ty khảo sát thị trường Cimigo, trong tháng 10 năm 2011, niềm tin của người tiêu dùng đã giảm xuống mức thấp nhất từ trước tới nay.


“[October's numbers] were the lowest I've ever seen,” says Richard Burrage, a managing partner with the firm, adding that such falls usually follow quickly after a hike in petrol prices. From last April to March of this year, both the food consumer index and petrol prices have climbed steadily.


“[Các số liệu của tháng 10] là số liệu thấp nhất mà tôi chưa từng thấy”, ông Richard Burrage, một đối tác quản lý của công ty nói thêm rằng, sự suy giảm như thế thường xảy ra ngay sau khi giá xăng đạt tới đỉnh cao. Từ cuối tháng 4 năm ngoái đến tháng 3 năm nay, chỉ số tiêu dùng thực phẩm và chỉ số giá xăng dầu đã gia tăng đều đặn.


“With inflation levels, they're earning far less than they were,” Burrage says, noting that there was “much greater optimism” during the pre-2008 economic boom.


“Với mức lạm phát đó, người dân kiếm được ít hơn so với trước đây”, ông Burrage nói, lưu ý rằng có “nhiều lạc quan hơn” trong thời kỳ bùng nổ kinh tế trước năm 2008.


But gas prices aren't the only indicator that analysts keep an eye on – cell phone sales are seen as another unofficial way of gauging consumer confidence across the country. Vietnam has a large number of cell phone users; most young people own several of them.


Tuy nhiên, giá xăng dầu không phải là chỉ số duy nhất mà các nhà phân tích để mắt tới – doanh số bán hàng điện thoại di động được xem như một cách không chính thức khác để đánh giá niềm tin của người tiêu dùng trên khắp cả nước. Việt Nam có số lượng lớn người sử dụng điện thoại di động, hầu hết giới trẻ sở hữu một vài cái điện thoại.


Truong Thi Ai Chau, 30, has been managing the same cell phone shop in Ho Chi Minh City for six years. But she says things are getting harder, and not just because supermarkets are now undercutting smaller retailers.


Trương Thị Ái Châu, 30 tuổi, đã từng quản lý một cửa hàng điện thoại di động ở thành phố Hồ Chí Minh trong sáu năm. Nhưng cô nói rằng mọi thứ trở nên khó khăn hơn, không phải chỉ do các siêu thị hiện đang giảm bớt những cửa hàng bán lẻ nhỏ hơn.


“It's much more difficult now,” she says. “Before, they could buy expensive brands, but now they just buy one for necessity.”


Cô nói: “Bây giờ khó khăn hơn nhiều. Trước đây, họ có thể mua các hiệu đắt tiền, nhưng bây giờ họ chỉ mua những thứ thật cần”.

Jonathan Pincus, a Harvard economist who has taught in Vietnam for more than eight years, believes that though the Communist Party has accurately identified the three areas in need of serious reform, the problem of what to actually do remains.

Jonathan Pincus, một kinh tế gia của Harvard, đã giảng dạy ở Việt Nam hơn tám năm, tin rằng, mặc dù Đảng Cộng sản đã xác định đúng ba lĩnh vực thật sự cần cải cách nghiêm túc, nhưng vấn đề thực sự vẫn còn đó.


“There's a lack of consensus on how to proceed,” he says. “I don't think its ideological disagreement,” among party members. Rather, he suggests, it's competing special interest groups that are creating the divisions.


Ông nói: “Có sự thiếu đồng thuận về cách thực hiện. Tôi nghĩ rằng không có sự bất đồng về ý thức hệ” giữa các đảng viên. Ông cho rằng, đó chính là sự cạnh tranh giữa các nhóm lợi ích đặc biệt hiện đang gây sự chia rẽ.


Party dealings range somewhere on the scale from opaque to impenetrable for many outsiders. However, in the past, what has leaked out has suggested rifts in the party and government between old school hardliners and modernizers.

Với nhiều người bên ngoài, cách xử lý vấn đề của đảng nằm ở tầm mức từ không rõ ràng cho tới không thể hiểu được. Tuy nhiên, trong quá khứ, những gì đã rò rỉ ra bên ngoài cho thấy, có những rạn nứt bên trong nội bộ đảng và chính phủ, giữa các nhóm bảo thủ và nhóm cải cách.

This time, though, it may have more to do with differing commercial interests between SOEs and others. Certainly, after highly visible government announcements last year, some press reports were critical of “special interests” for resisting major reforms in the SOE sector.

Mặc dù, lần này có thể liên quan đến sự khác biệt lợi ích thương mại giữa các doanh nghiệp nhà nước và các nhóm khác. Chắc chắn, sau các thông báo rất rõ của chính phủ hồi năm ngoái, một số tin tức báo chí đã chỉ trích “lợi ích đặc biệt” do sự chống lại những cải cách quan trọng trong lĩnh vực doanh nghiệp nhà nước.


“They need to do something, but they don't know what,” Pincus says.

“Họ cần phải làm gì đó, nhưng họ chẳng biết làm gì”, ông Pincus nói.

Vietnam's economy had been rushing ahead in the decade that followed the Asian Financial Crisis in the late 1990s, a crisis that threatened to derail the advances under doi moi. For the past five years, though, the economy has been spinning through cycles of boom and bust.

Kinh tế Việt Nam đã phát triển mạnh trong một thập niên theo sau cuộc khủng hoảng tài chính châu Á cuối thập niên 1990, cuộc khủng hoảng này đã đe dọa phá hoại những sự tiến bộ trong thời kỳ đổi mới. Tuy nhiên, trong năm năm qua, nền kinh tế đã xoay chuyển giữa các chu kỳ tăng trưởng và suy thoái.

“The problems now are serious. We'll be stuck in this boom-bust cycle until things are fixed,” Pincus says. “The easy stage of development is over.”

Ông Pincus nói: “Các vấn đề khó khăn hiện nay là nghiêm trọng. Chúng ta sẽ bị kẹt trong chu kỳ tăng trưởng và suy thoái này cho đến khi mọi thứ được sửa đổi. Giai đoạn phát triển dễ dàng đã qua rồi”.


Translated by Dương Lệ Ch


http://the-diplomat.com/2012/06/10/easy-part-over-for-vietnam

Ishihara rattling U.S. saber at China THỊ TRƯỞNG TÔKYÔ ĐỔI GIỌNG VỚI MỸ VÌ SỢ TRUNG QUỐC






Singing a new tune: Tokyo Gov. Shintaro Ishihara delivers a speech at the Heritage Foundation think tank in Washington on April 17. KYODO

Giọng điệu mới: Thống đốc Tokyo Shintaro Ishihara phát biểu tại think tank Heritage Foundation, Washington ngày 17 tháng 4. Kyodo
Ishihara rattling U.S. saber at China

THỊ TRƯỞNG TÔKYÔ ĐỔI GIỌNG VỚI MỸ VÌ SỢ TRUNG QUỐC

By TOMOYUKI TACHIKAWA
Kyodo

TOMOYUKI TACHIKAWA
Kyodo

Tokyo Gov. Shintaro Ishihara, long famous for his dislike of the United States, is singing a new tune as China rapidly builds up its naval capacity in resource-rich Asian waters.

Thị trưởng Tôkyô Shintaro Ishihara — từ lâu vốn nổi tiếng là không thích nước Mỹ – đang cất lên một làn điệu mới trong bối cảnh Trung Quốc tăng cường sức mạnh hải quân ở các vùng biển giàu tài nguyên của châu Á.

Even Japan's foremost nationalist has apparently started to think U.S. support is essential to respond to the maritime challenge posed by the fast-growing giant on the mainland.

Vậy là ngay cả chính trị gia dân tộc chủ nghĩa hàng đầu của Nhật Bản này dường như cũng bắt đầu nghĩ rằng sự ủng hộ của Mỹ là cần thiết để đáp trả thách thức hàng hải mà “gã khổng lồ” Trung Quốc đang ngày một phình to ở đại lục tạo ra.

In mid-April, the outspoken 79-year-old former novelist stunned the central government by saying the Tokyo Metropolitan Government plans to buy some of the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea, administered by Japan but claimed by China and Taiwan.

Vào giữa tháng Tư vừa qua, cựu tác giả 79 tuổi này đã khiến chính quyền trung ương một phen choáng váng khi tuyên bố Chính quyền thành phố Tôkyô có kế hoạch mua lại một số đảo thuộc Quần đảo Senkaku (Điếu Ngư) trên biển Hoa Đông do phía Nhật Bản kiểm soát nhưng cả Trung Quốc và Đài Loan đều tuyên bố chủ quyền.

The controversial announcement — coming in a speech at the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank in Washington — was widely interpreted as trying to goad the central government into taking control of the privately owned islands.

Thông báo gây tranh cãi này – xuất hiện trong một bài phát biểu của ông Ishihara tại trụ sở của Quỹ tài trợ Heritage có trụ sở tại Oasinhtơn (Mỹ) – được coi là nỗ lực nhằm thúc giục Chính phủ Nhật Bản kiểm soát các hòn đảo thuộc sở hữu tư nhân này.

Some analysts, however, say Ishihara was not merely aiming his comments at a Japanese audience and that he wanted to prompt nations squaring off against China to make more efforts to bolster ties with the United States to ensure maritime security in the Asia-Pacific region.

Tuy nhiên, một số nhà phân tích cho rằng ông Ishihara không chỉ hướng những bình luận của mình đến “thính giả Nhật Bản” mà còn muốn các quốc gia chuyển mũi công kích về phía Trung Quốc, đồng thời thắt chặt quan hệ với Mỹ để đảm bảo an ninh hàng hải ở khu vực châu Á — Thái Bình Dương.

Ishihara's announcement at least increased public awareness of the Senkaku issue, helping the Tokyo Metropolitan Government receive more than ¥950 million in donations from people as of the end of May to buy three of the uninhabited islets from a Saitama businessman who technically holds title to them.

Quả thật, tuyên bố của ông Ishihara ít nhiều đã thúc đẩy nhận thức chung về vấn đề Senkaku, giúp Chính quyền Tôkyô nhận được hơn 950 triệu yên tiền quyên góp mua 3 hòn đảo, thuộc sở hữu của một doanh nhân ở tỉnh Saitama, từ người dân tính đến cuối tháng Năm vừa qua.

The administration of Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda has drawn criticism for its qualms about nationalizing some of the islets out of consideration of China.


Chính quyền của Thủ tướng Yoshihiko Noda đã phải hứng chịu sự chỉ trích vì do dự trước việc quốc hữu hoá một số hòn đảo thuộc Senkaku có thể khiến Trung Quốc tức giận.

"In that sense, Ishihara was able to achieve one of his aims," a source familiar with U.S.-Japan relations said. But he added that "Ishihara's comment could only provoke China."

Nguồn tin thân cận với quan hệ Mỹ- Nhật cho biết: “Theo cách đó, ông Ishihara có thể đã đạt được một trong số những mục đích của mình. Tuyên bố của ông Ishihara có thể chỉ để chọc tức Trung Quốc”.


Concerns over Beijing's growing assertiveness in the East China Sea have been intensifying since a clash in 2010 between two Japanese patrol boats and a Chinese trawler near the islands.

Những quan ngại đối với tham vọng của Bắc Kinh trên biển Hoa Đông đang ngày càng trở nên căng thẳng hơn kể từ vụ va chạm năm 2010 giữa hai tàu tuần tra Nhật Bản và một tàu cá Trung Quốc gần quần đảo này.


"If a military conflict between Japan and China really erupts, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government has no way to handle it," the source said. "Ishihara is nothing but irresponsible."

Nguồn tin này cho biết: “Nếu một cuộc xung đột giữa Nhật Bản và Trung Quốc thực sự bùng phát, Chính quyền Tôkyô sẽ không có cách nào giải quyết được vụ này. Ishihara chẳng có gì ngoài sự thiếu trách nhiệm”.


The governor shrugs off such criticism, implying he intentionally irked China with an eye to possible support from the United States.


Tuy nhiên, Thị trưởng Tôkyô đã rũ sạch những lời chỉ trích như vậy khi ông cố ý khiêu khích Trung Quốc bằng cách viện tới sự hậu thuẫn của Mỹ.

The Japan-U.S. security treaty would be "invoked immediately" if China launches military action near the Senkakus, Ishihara said at a news conference in Tokyo in late April, emphasizing that the disputed islands are an integral part of Japanese territory.

Tại cuộc họp báo ở Tôkyô cuối tháng Tư vừa qua, Ishihara tuyên bố Hiệp ước an ninh Mỹ-Nhật sẽ “lập tức có tác dụng” một khi Trung Quốc có hành động quân sự gần Senkaku và nhấn mạnh rằng các đảo tranh chấp là một phần của lãnh thổ Nhật Bản.
"Japan should defend itself in cooperation with the United States, and in some cases, should speak up (against China) while threatening the invocation of the (Japan-U.S.) security treaty," he said.

Ông cho biết: “Nhật Bản cần phải tự bảo vệ mình thông qua mối quan hệ hợp tác với Mỹ và trong một số trường hợp cần phải lên tiếng rõ ràng với Trung Quốc, đồng thời dọa sẽ cầu viện tới hiệp ước an ninh”.


It is obvious that Ishihara is keeping in mind that U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton confirmed in September 2010 that the Senkaku Islands are covered by the treaty, which allows for Washington to retaliate against a military strike on Japanese territory.

Rõ ràng, Thị trưởng Ishihara đang ám chỉ đến việc Ngoại trưởng Mỹ Hillary Clinton hồi tháng 9/2010 từng khẳng định Quần đảo Senkaku được Hiệp ước này bảo đảm theo đó cho phép Oasinhtơn đáp trả hành động quân sự nhằm vào lãnh thổ Nhật Bản.

In his 1989 book "The Japan That Can Say No," which he coauthored with the late Sony Corp. Chairman Akio Morita, Ishihara said Japan should tell the United States that it can protect itself. But Ishihara, who has called Japan "America's mistress," now appears to be aware that it is impossible to counter China's military buildup without U.S. support.



Trong cuốn sách xuất bản năm 1989 “Nhật Bản có thể nói không” – Ishihara là đồng tác giả với Chủ tịch Tập đoàn Sony Akio Morita, vị thị trưởng này có đoạn viết Nhật Bản Cần nói với Mỹ rằng Tôkyô có thể tự bảo vệ mình. Tuy nhiên, ông Ishihara giờ có vẻ như đã nhận thức được rằng không thể đương đầu với sự gia tăng quân sự của Trung Quốc mà không cần đến hỗ trợ của Mỹ.

As Japan's power is weakening in every field, including the economy and defense, "Mr. Ishihara seems to be considering how to drag the United States" into maritime confrontations with China, said Takashi Kawakami, a professor at Takushoku University.

Giáo sư Đại học Takushoku, Takashi Kawakami, cho biết trong bối cảnh sức mạnh của Nhật Bản đang suy yếu về mọi mặt, bao gồm cả kinh tế và quốc phòng, “ông Ishihara dường như đang toan tính làm sao để lôi kéo Mỹ vào cuộc đối đầu trên biển với Trung Quốc”.


Ishihara's change of heart underscores that countries competing with China — in particular Japan but also the Philippines and Vietnam, two nations displeased with Beijing's claims in the South China Sea — are being forced into growing more dependent on the United States.


Sự thay đổi quan điểm của Ishihara cho thấy các nước cạnh tranh với Trung Quốc – không chỉ có Nhật Bản mà cả Philippin và Việt Nam, hai nước không hài lòng với những tuyên bố chủ quyền của Bắc Kinh trên biển Đông – đang buộc phải dựa nhiều hơn vào Mỹ.
Chinese boats have been repeatedly spotted in a contiguous zone near the Senkakus in the East China Sea, while Philippine and Chinese ships have recently been locked in a standoff in the South China Sea.

Các tàu Trung Quốc liên tục xuất hiện tại khu vực giáp ranh Senkaku trên biển Hoa Đông trong khi tàu Philippin và Trung Quốc mới đây cũng xuất hiện nhiều trên biển Đông.

Beijing has referred to the waters as being part of "China's core interests," the expression it uses for Taiwan and other territorial problems where independence sentiment continues to smolder, fanning fears about China's military rise.


Bắc Kinh ám chỉ vùng biển này là một phần trong “lợi ích cốt lõi của Trung Quốc”, thuật ngữ mà nước này thường sử dụng đối với vấn đề Đài Loan và các vấn đề lãnh thổ khác – nơi mà tư tưởng độc lập vẫn tiếp tục âm ỉ – thổi bùng lên những quan ngại về sự gia tăng quân sự của Trung Quốc.


Washington, meanwhile, is strategically shifting its military focus to the Asia-Pacific region, believing stability in the area could help boost economic growth there, which in turn could have a favorable effect on America's economy.


Trong khi đó, Oasinhtơn đang chuyển trọng tâm chiến lược quân sự sang khu vực châu Á – Thái Bình Dương và tin tưởng sự ổn định của khu vực này có thể giúp thúc đẩy tăng trưởng kinh tế và đổi lại sẽ có tác động tích cực tới kinh tế Mỹ.
"U.S. interests clearly coincide with those of nations in the Asia-Pacific region frustrated by China," Kawakami said. "The United States could strengthen relations with anti-China countries further, which would change the security situation in the region."

Giáo sư Kawakami cho biết: “Những lợi ích của Mỹ rõ ràng đồng nhất với lợi ích của các nước ở châu Á – Thái Bình Dương. Mỹ có thể thúc đẩy hơn nữa quan hệ với các nước chống Trung Quốc theo đó sẽ làm thay đổi tình hình an ninh khu vực”.


Australia, Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam, the latter of which actually battled China in the South China Sea in the 1980s, have conducted joint drills with the U.S. Navy, apparently aiming to enhance deterrence with an eye on China.

Ôxtrâylia, Nhật Bản, Philippin và Việt Nam – nước từng có đụng độ với Trung Quốc trên biển Đông những năm 1980 – đã tiến hành các cuộc tập trận chung với Hải quân Mỹ, dường như để tăng cường răn đe nhằm vào Trung Quốc.


Other analysts say Ishihara has also indicated Japan should take the initiative in reinforcing its alliance with the United States as a way to hamper China's ambitions for dominance, and that Southeast Asian nations expect Japan to do so.


Các nhà phân tích khác lại cho rằng Ishihara ám chỉ rằng Nhật Bản cần có sáng kiến tăng cường mối liên minh với Mỹ như một cách để chặn đứng những tham vọng bá quyền của Trung Quốc và rằng các quốc gia Đông Nam Á cũng hy vọng Nhật Bản làm như vậy.


"Our country has had no greater friends than the United States and Japan," Philippine President Benigno Aquino III said in a speech last year.


Trong một tuyên bố hồi năm ngoái, Tổng thống Philippin Benigno Aquino III khẳng định: “Đất nước chúng ta chưa từng có những người bạn lớn hơn Mỹ và Nhật Bản”.


Significantly, he added: "Time has proven that we can count on allies like them, and I am confident that they will stand by us should there be a threat again to our security and sovereignty."

Đặc biệt, ông Aquino còn khẳng định: “Thời gian đã chứng minh rằng chúng ta có thể trông mong vào những đồng minh như họ và tôi tin rằng họ sẽ luôn sát cánh cùng chúng ta nếu xuất hiện mối đe dọa đối với an ninh và chủ quyền của chúng ta”.


The protracted disputes in the South China Sea are one of the most serious long-term security concerns in the region.

Rõ ràng, những tranh chấp kéo dài ở biển Đông là một trong những quan ngại an ninh nghiêm trọng và lâu dài ở khu vực này.


China, Taiwan and four Southeast Asian nations — Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam — have conflicting territorial and maritime claims over parts or all of about 100 islands, atolls, reefs and cays believed to sit atop vast natural oil and gas deposits.


Trung Quốc, Đài Loan và 4 nước Đông Nam Á gồm Brunây, Malaixia, Philippin và Việt Nam đều tuyên bố chủ quyền lãnh thổ và lãnh hải đối với một phần hoặc toàn bộ khoảng 100 đảo san hô, vỉa đá ngầm và các đảo nhỏ được cho là nằm bên trên lớp trầm tích có trữ lượng dầu mỏ và khí đốt khổng lồ.
For Japan, stability in the South China Sea is "very important too," because oil the country imports from the Middle East is carried through the disputed waters, said Tomohito Shinoda, a professor at the International University of Japan.

Giáo sư Đại học Quốc tế Nhật Bản, Tomohito Shinoda, cho biết đối với Nhật Bản, sự ổn định ở biển Đông là “vô cùng quan trọng” vì dầu mỏ mà Tôkyô nhập từ Trung Đông được vận chuyển qua vùng biển này.


To prevent China from expanding its maritime activities further, it is "appropriate" for Japan to bolster ties with other countries, including Southeast Asian nations, centered on the Japan-U.S. alliance, Shinoda said.

Theo ông Shinoda, để ngăn chặn Trung Quốc mở rộng các hoạt động trên biển, Nhật Bản cần tăng cường quan hệ với các nước khác, trong đó có các quốc gia Đông Nam Á, mà trung tâm của nó là liên minh Mỹ-Nhật.
Ishihara, who became the Tokyo governor in 1999, is the elder brother of the late Yujiro Ishihara, who was a top film star. Yujiro, who died at age 52 in 1987, was a prominent singer as well.


Ông Ishihara – giữ chức vụ thị trưởng Tôkyô từ năm 1999 – là anh trai của ngôi sao điện ảnh quá cố Yujiro Ishihara. Ông Yujiro, mất năm 1987 khi mới 52 tuổi, cũng là một ca sĩ nổi tiếng của Nhật Bản.
"As I recall, Shintaro has said he can sing better than Yujiro," said a former TV worker in Tokyo. "His new song for the United States could have a certain impact on security in the Asia-Pacific region."


Một cựu nhân viên đài truyền hình ở Tôkyô từng chia sẻ: “Khi tôi nhắc lại kỷ niệm cũ, ông Ishihara nói rằng ông ấy có thể hát tốt hơn Yujiro. Và bài hát mới của ông ấy dành cho nước Mỹ có thể tác động thực sự an ninh ở khu vực châu Á – Thái Bình Dương”.


http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20120601f2.html

OF MEN AND MICE - Người và Chuột














The Boy In The Striped Pyjamas 2008 - Thằng bé mặc pyjama sọc (áo tù)








- Move!
- Move it!
- Move!
- Move!
- Now!
- It's me home.
- Bye, Bruno!
- Bye, Bruno!
- Hello, sweetheart.
- Mum, what's going on?
- We're celebrating.
- Celebrating?
- Your father's been given a promotion.
- That means a better job.
- I know what promotion is.
- So we're having a little party to celebrate.
- He's still going to be a soldier though, isn't he?
- Yes, my lamb.
- Yes, just a more important one now.
- There's some even more exciting news,
- but I think Dad wanted to tell you about that himself.
- Moving? Where to?
- To the countryside.
- That's miles away.
- What about Karl and Leon and Martin?
- Sweetheart, I know it's hard,
- but we're all having to say goodbye to our friends for the time being.
- Anyway, we'll make new ones where we're going. Won't we?
- Of course you are. You'll make lots of new friends.
- Bruno, you can have your friends around in the morning before we go.
- Think of it as an adventure, like in one of your books.
- But this is the best house ever.
- Well, you never know. The house we're going to might be even better.
- Dad says it's got a garden.
- Look, the thing is, Bruno, the thing about being a soldier,
- is that life is not so much about choice, it's more about duty,
- so if your country needs you to go somewhere, you go.
- Now, of course, going somewhere else is much easier
- when you know that your family are so delighted to go with you.
- Bruno! You're getting bigger every time I see you.
- It's only been a week, Nathalie.
- Well, perhaps it's me that's getting smaller.
- So, you two, well, what do you think of all this? Moving out of Berlin?
- Well, Mummy and Daddy say it's a good thing, so I suppose it must be.
- Children, be angels, will you?
Pass some food around.
- Heil Hitler!
- Congratulations.
- Doesn't he look wonderful?
- Absolutely.
- I'm so proud of you, my boy.
- Oh, dear. I sometimes wonder if this is all down to me, making you those costumes for your little plays when you were tiny.
- You used to adore all that dressing up.
- Nathalie...
- Does it still make you feel special, Ralf dear?
- The uniform and what it stands for?
- Mother, it's a party. Let's not spoil things.
- Me, spoil things?
- You should be careful.
- Airing your views so publicly could land you in trouble.
- You know that.
- So, how long are we losing you for, my boy?
- Until the war is won, I would think.
- Well, not so long then.
- Bruno!
- All right, Bruno. Time to say goodbye.
- Bye-bye.
- Bye-bye!
- "Time has come for me to sleep Lord, I thank Thee for Thy keep
- "Watch this night well over me And teach me, Lord, to trust in Thee
- "Care for children, sick and poor Grant them, Lord, Thy blessing more
- "And this I pray in Jesus' name Care for my family just the same"
- Amen.
- Children, look. Look! Our new home.
- I have some business to take care of. I'll see you shortly.
- Well, what do we think?
- Come on. It's lovely.
- You two choose your rooms. I'll have Maria come and help you unpack.
- What do you think of it, Maria?  The new house.
- It's not for me to say.
- But it won't feel like home until we make it feel like home, will it?
- Is he already up?
- Who was that?
- One of your father's soldiers, I suppose.
- He looked very serious.
- Well, they are, aren't they?
- Why are we whispering?
- I don't know.
- And play with who?
- The children over on the farm.
- Farm? I didn't see a farm. And that one, too.
- You can only see it from my room.
- And there are some children there?
- Yes, quite a few.
- That's good.
- So, I'll be able to play with them.
- I don't see why not.
- I'll wait a little bit, just to see what they're like, because they look a bit strange.
- The children do?
- Well, and the farmers.
- What sort of strange?
- I'm sorry.
- Vegetables.
- There.
- Bruno, have you unpacked everything?
- Because I think you should go back upstairs and finish off.
- Thank you, ma'am.
- Bruno.
- I told you they were strange.
- Who?
- The farmers. They wear pyjamas.
- Bruno, I was just coming to look for you.
- Well, thank you for that. That was extremely useful.
- I'll be over to see you later.
- Of course, Herr Kommandant.
- Come in.
- Sit down, sit down.
- Well, what do you think?
- Oh, dear.
- I want to go home.
- You are home, Bruno. Home is where the family is.
- Isn't that right?
- Bruno, you have to at least give the place a chance.
- I promise you, it won't be long before you...
- Why do the farmers wear pyjamas?
I can see them from my window.
- The thing is, Bruno, those people...
- Well, you see, they're not really people at all.
- Bruno, who told you it was a farm?
- Was it Maria?
- No.
- It is a farm, isn't it?
- Yes.
- Is it to do with your new job?
- All you need to know about my work here, Bruno, is that it's very important to our country and to you.
- We're working very hard to make this world a better place for you to grow up in.
- But you're not a farmer. You're a soldier.
- Bruno, can you come and help me finish sorting out in the kitchen?
- I can still play with them, though? The children.
- I don't think so, Bruno. No.
- Like you say, they're a bit strange. A bit...
- Well, they're different.
- Don't worry, my darling. We'll find you some new friends, but they won't be the ones from the farm.
- Ralf, you promised.
- You said it was miles away.
- It is.
- How was I to know he could see it from the bedroom window?
- There was one of them in our kitchen.
- Master Bruno, how are you today?
- Fed up.
- You said the same thing every day for two whole weeks.
- It's true.
- Well, you should be out playing.
- Playing with who?
- I don't know. Gretel?
- Well, you can make your own fun.
- That's what I'm trying to do.
- One thing's for sure, sitting around being miserable won't make things any happier.
- Bruno, what are you doing?
- Exploring!
- No! No, not in the back. I told you, it's out of bounds.
- Explore at the front. - But I've explored it all.
- Well, find something else to do.
- Like what?
- Come back in now, and we'll think of something.
- So, children, what are you doing today?
- Same as yesterday.
- And what was that?
- Same as the day before.
- Except you went exploring.
- I like exploring.
- Where did you go?
- I wanted to look in the back garden, but Mum wouldn't let me.
- The back garden?
- Well, God forbid.
- I expect you'll be missing those friends of yours.
- I even miss school.
- Well, I never thought I'd hear you say that.
- Anyway, you won't be missing it for long.
- Really?
- I've arranged a tutor for you both.
- A Herr Liszt will be visiting twice a week.
- So we're not going to school?
- School's coming here?
- On an old bicycle, I gather.
- It's a bird without the...
- Good morning, little man. And how are you this morning?
- Can I ask you a favour?
- Well, you can ask.
- Are there any spare tyres around?
- An old one from one of the trucks or something?
- Well, the only spare tyre I've seen around here  belongs to Lieutenant Meinberg.
- Well, is he using it?
- Yes, he's very attached to it.
- Stop it. He doesn't understand. He's only eight.
- You're only, so stop pretending you're any older.
- What do you want a tyre for, anyway?
- I want to make a swing.
- A swing?
- That does sound exciting.
- You!
- Here, now.
- Move!
- Take this boy to the outhouse in the back garden.
- There are some tyres in there. He will select one.
- You will carry it where he asks. Do you understand?
- Well, little man, what are you waiting for?
- How about this one?
- Where's my mum?
- She's out.
- When is she back?
- Soon, I expect.
- But don't worry.
- But I might bleed to death.
- No, you won't.
- Will I need to go to hospital?
- No. It's only a small cut.
- Come on. It's not that bad.
- There, all better.
- What's your name?
- Pavel.
- Now, you've got to sit still for a few minutes before you start walking around on that again.
- Will you tell my mum what happened?
- I think she's going to see it for herself.
- She'll probably take me to a doctor.
- I don't think so.
- It could be worse than it looks.
- It isn't.
- How would you know? You're not a doctor.
- Yes, I am.
- No, you're not.
- You peel potatoes.
- I practised as a doctor.
- Before I...
- Before I came here.
- You couldn't have been much good then, if you had to practise.
- Now, what are you going to be when you grow up?
- I know. An explorer.
- How do you know that?
- Is it nice on the farm?
- Bruno. Bruno, what happened to you?
- I made a swing, but I fell off it and cut my knee.
- But Pavel here, he carried me in and put a bandage on it.
-  Go to your room.
- But Pavel says I...
- Don't argue. Go to your room.
- Thank you.
- It's not fair, you having this view.
- Well, I'm not swapping.
- I think school's here.
- No, I mean more recent history.
- Are you interested in current affairs?
- Yes, very.
- So, you'll be aware of the situation in which our great nation presently finds itself.
- Yes. I read newspapers whenever I can and one of Father's men keeps me up to date on  everything that's happening.
- Good. And you, Bruno. Have you been reading newspapers?
- Have you been reading anything?
- Books.
- Good. What sort of books?
- Adventure books, mainly.
- You know, knights in shining armour, exploring strange lands and stuff, and silly princesses always getting in the way.
- Well, this is why I'm here to help. You're how old now, Bruno? Eight?
- Time to get your head out of those fiction books and start learning about fact.
- Time, I think, to turn your mind to the real world, and I believe this would be the perfect start.
- Die, die!
- Die, die.
- Hello.
- I'm exploring.
- What are you doing?
- We're... We're building a new hut.
- Have you got lots of friends over there?
- A few. But we fight a lot.
- That's why I like being out here. I can be on my own.
- I'm Bruno.
- Shmuel.
- - Sorry?
- I'm Shmuel.
- That's your name? Never heard of anyone called that before.
- I've never heard of anyone called Bruno.
- But Shmuel. No one's called Shmuel.
- I live in the house, back there.
- Have you got any food on you?
- No.
- Are you hungry?
- How old are you?
- Eight.
- Me, too!
- It's not fair, me being stuck over here on my own, while you're over there, playing with friends all day.
- Playing?
- Well, that number.
- Isn't it a part of a game or something?
- It's just my number.
- Everyone gets given a different number.
- Right. Then what happens?
- I have to go back now!
- Really?
- Yeah.
- It was nice to meet you, Shmuel.
- And you, Bruno.
- Bye.
- Mum, I can't find my football.
- Well, it'll be in one of your cupboards, sweet.
- It isn't. I've looked.
- Can I have a piece of chocolate?
- A piece. Yes.
- Bruno?
- Have you looked in the cellar?
- The cellar?
- For your football.
- Damn.

- Gretel, I've just seen all your...
- All my what?
- All your dolls, down in the cellar.
- Dolls are for little girls.
- It's not right to play with silly toys while people are away risking their lives for the Fatherland.
- "My people's density is my density."
- Destiny.
- "Its struggles and its sorrows, its joys and its miseries are mine.
- "I must work and create for the resurrection of my Fatherland.
- "The history of my people is great and glorious."
- And it's :
- I'm sorry?
- Isn't that when we finish?
- The termination of the lesson is for the tutor to decide, Bruno, not the pupil. Now, will you please continue.
- Bruno, there you are.
- I'm just going into town for an hour. Do you want to come?
- You be careful on that thing.
- Thank you.
- Can I ask you something?
- Why do you people wear pyjamas all day?
- They're not pyjamas.
- Well, those.
- We have to. They took all our other clothes away.
- Who did?
- The soldiers.
- The soldiers? Why?
- I don't like soldiers. Do you?
- I do, quite. My dad's a soldier, but not the sort that takes people's clothes away for no reason.
- What sort, then?
- Well, he's the important sort.
- He's in charge of making everything better for everyone.
- So is your dad a farmer?
- No, he's a watchmaker.
- Or was. Most of the time now, he just mends boots.
- It's funny how grown-ups can't make their minds up about what they want to do. It's like Pavel.
- Do you know him? Lives over there.
- He used to be a doctor, but gave it all up to peel potatoes.
- Can I ask you another question?
- What do you burn in those chimneys?
- I saw them going the other day. Is it just lots of hay and stuff?
- I don't know. We're not allowed over there.
- Mama says it's old clothes.
- Well, whatever it is, it smells horrid.
- I wish you'd remembered the chocolate.
- Yes, I'm sorry.
- I know! Perhaps you can come and have supper with us sometime.
- I can't, can I? Because of this.
- But that's to stop the animals getting out, isn't it?
- Animals? No, it's to stop people getting out.
- Are you not allowed out?
- Why? What have you done?
- I'm a Jew.
- I think I should go now.
-  Will you be here tomorrow?
- I'll try.
- Goodbye, then!
- Bye.
- Little present, sweetheart.
- Thank you, Mummy.
- Have you seen Bruno?
- Outside on his swing, I think.


- Yes, Thursday's perfect.
I'll have a car come to collect you both.
- Are Grandma and Grandpa coming?
- Hey, did you smell that horrible smell the other day?
- Coming from the chimneys.
- What sort of ill?
- The day I fell off the swing.
- Did you smell it, Mum?
- Father.
- Mum.
- Let me speak to her.
- Yes, she is. I can hear her.
- Yes. We look forward to it. Goodbye.
- Is Grandma not coming?
- No.
- She's poorly, apparently, but Grandpa's coming.
- Did you smell it, Dad?
- What?
- That horrid smell from the chimneys. What is it?
- I think they just burn rubbishthere sometimes.
- Look.
- What?
- Hey!
- Gretel.
- Hey, that's not fair!
- Gretel.
- What?
- It's only a game.
- Ralf, this tutor you brought in, does he usually teach children as young as Gretel and Bruno?
- I believe so. Why?
- Well, do we know what he's teaching them?
- Gretel seems to have become so...
- They're being taught what all children are being taught at the moment.
- They mustn't get left behind.
- Come on.
- Let's get to bed.
- "The Jew slandered us and incited our enemies.
- "The Jew corrupted us through bad books.
- "He mocked our literature and our music.
- "Everywhere, his influence was destructive, "the eventual result of which was our nation's collapse,
- "and then..."
- Yes, Bruno.
- I don't understand.
- A nation's collapse is all down to this one man?
- The Jew here means the entire Jewish race.
- If it had been just one man, I'm sure something would've been done about him.
- There is such a thing as a nice Jew, though, isn't there?
- I think, Bruno, if you ever found a nice Jew, you would be the best explorer in the world.
- Continue, Gretel.
- "The aim of the Jew is to become the ruler of humanity. "He is the enemy of culture. "Thousands of Germans have been made poor by the Jew."
- Master Bruno.
- What are you doing? You've just had your lunch, haven't you?
- I was going for a walk, and I thought I might get peckish.
- But don't make a mess of your satchel. Bring it here.
- I'll wrap it properly for you.
- No. It's none of your business.
- Bruno, what is it?
- What are you doing with your satchel?
- Liszt gave us some books. I'm going out on the swing to read.
- Let me see.
- What?


- The books.
- No.
- Bruno, I just want to see what booksLiszt has given you.
- I told a lie.
- What?
- I've just got adventure books.
- Go on. Off you go, then.
- Now, Maria, there's two extra for supper tonight.
- The Kommandant's father will be here, and I believe Lieutenant Kotler is joining us.
- Here.
- What's the matter?
-  Don't throw it back.
- What? Why not?
- It's dangerous.
- Dangerous?
- It's just a ball. Come on.
- Do you not like playing?
- Just not ball games?
- Not here.
- Tell me how the number game works.
- I told you, it's not a game.
- We just all have numbers.
- Shmuel!
- Bruno! What are you doing?
- My ball went over. I was just getting it back.
- They smell even worse when they burn, don't they?
- What?
- But, surely you...
- Elsa, I was sworn to secrecy.
- From your own wife.
- Yes.
- I took an oath upon my life. Do you understand?
- Elsa, you believe in this, too.
- You want this country to be strong...
- No, Ralf, no! No, not that!
- How can you...
- Because I'm a soldier.
- How can you...
- Soldiers fight wars.
- That isn't war!
- It's a part of it! It's a vital part of it!
- The Fatherland we all desire, all of us, you included, cannot be achieved
without work such as this!
-  Elsa. Elsa.
- Get away from me! Get away from me!
- Grandpa's here.
- I don't believe this.
- Grandpa's here.
- We'll be through in a moment.
- Who told you about this?
- How's Grandma?
- She's a bit under the weather, I'm afraid.
- It's a shame, she was so much looking forward to seeing you.
- Perhaps next time, if she feels up to it.
- Absolutely.
- You know, Ralf, your mother really is sick.
- She's been talking about this visitfor weeks.
- Maybe that's what's made her sick.
- So, your father tells me that you've got a tutor.
- Yes. He's nice.
- But he won't let us read any adventure books.

- All we do is boring, old history.
- Let me tell you something, young man.
- If it wasn't for history, we wouldn't all be sitting around this table.
- The work your father is doing here, history in the making.
- When I was your age, history was my favourite subject by miles, which obviously didn't please my father.
- Why not?
- Well, he was a professor of literature at the university.
- Really, does he still teach?
- I don't really know.
- You don't know?
- We're not in touch, my father and I. He left the country some time ago.
- Really, when?
- About four years ago, Herr Kommandant.
- But surely he can't be very old. What is he, still in his late 40s?
- Where did he go? Lieutenant Kotler, your father, the professor of literature, where did he go?
- I believe it was Switzerland, Kommandant.
- How strange that he should choose to leave the Fatherland at the very moment it needed him most. Just when we're all required to play our part in the national revival.
- More wine!
- What reason did he give? Was he tubercular?
- Did he go there to take the air?
- I'm afraid I really don't know, Kommandant.
- You'd have to ask him.
- Well, that would be rather difficult, wouldn't it?
- With him being in Switzerland.
- Come on!
- What's the matter with you tonight?
- Yes, perhaps that was it. Perhaps he was ill.
- Unless, of course, he had disagreements.
- I mean, with government policy.
- One hears of such men.
- Disturbed, most of them, or just plain cowards.
- Even so, all of them traitors.
- Absolutely right.
- Presumably, if that was the case with your father, you will have informed your superiors,
as is your duty. Lieutenant Kotler!
- You cretin Jew! Filth!
- Ralf!
- Jew!
- But Dad just sat there.
- What did you expect him to do?
- The Jew deserved it.
- Can I ask you something about the farm?
- Bruno, you don't still think it's a farm, do you?
- It's a camp. What's called a work camp.
- For Jews, obviously.
- Just Jews?
- Because they're the best workers?
- They're not in there because they're good, silly.
- They're no good at anything.
- They're in there because they're evil.
- They're the enemy.
- The enemy?
- But I thought we were fighting...
- They're evil, Bruno.
- Evil, dangerous vermin.
- They're the reason we lost the Great War.
- Haven't you been listening to anything Liszt has been telling us?
- No. Not really.
- Dad's not horrible, is he?
- He's a good man.


- Of course, he is.
- But he's in charge of a horrible place.
- It's only horrible for them, Bruno.
- We should be proud of Dad, now more than ever before.
- He's making the country great again.
- Like you say they're a bit strange. A bit...
- Well, they're different.
- They're the enemy, Bruno.
- Evil, dangerous vermin.
- Well, you see, they're not really people at all.
- What are you doing here?
- They wanted someone with tiny fingers to clean all these.
- We're not supposed to be friends, you and me.
- We're meant to be enemies. Did you know that?
- Do you want some?
- What's your dad like? What's he like? Is he a good man?
- You've never thought he wasn't?
- And you're proud of him?
- Aren't you proud of yours?
- Is it really horrible in the camp?
- How dare you talk to people in the house.
- How dare you!
- Are you eating?
- Have you been stealing food?
- Answer me!
- No, sir. He gave it to me.
- He's my friend.
- What?
- Little man, do you know this Jew?
- Do you know this Jew?
- No, I just walked in, and he was helping himself.
- I've never seen him before in my life.
- You, finish cleaning the glasses.
- When I come back, we'll have a little chat about what happens to rats who steal. Come away.
- New arrivals here are happy to discover that life in the camp is not all work.
- And that there's ample opportunity for leisure also.
- At the end of their day at the ironmongery - or the build or boot factory, The workers can enjoy the many forms of pastime that the camp has to offer.
- Organised sport is very popular.
- Those that don't play certainly enjoy watching.
- At the end of the working day, the centrally located café is the ideal place for friends and families to join together for a hearty and nutritious meal.
- The children, in particular, enjoy the pastries and cakes on offer. In the evenings, the occasional music concerts, either by visiting orchestras or, indeed, by talented musicians from within the camp itself, are always well attended.
- Other recreations include reading in the library, pottery, cookery, art and horticulture for adult and child alike.
- Almost any activity one could wish for is available within the camp.
- Splendid.
- Bravo. Excellent.
- Thank you.
- Goodbye, little man.
- Shmuel! Shmuel!
- I don't understand.
- I saw a film about the camp, and it looked so nice.
- I don't know why I did it.
- Gretel and everyone were saying all these things, and that soldier's so scary.
- Been coming here for days, but you were never here.
- I thought maybe we weren't friends any more.
- Shmuel, I'm really sorry for what I did. We are still friends, aren't we?
- Where's Kurt these days? I haven't seen him for ages.


- Who's Kurt?
- Lieutenant Kotler.
- He's been moved to the front.
- It was felt that his youth and enthusiasm would be put to better use there.
- Herr Kommandant, telephone.
- In actual fact, Gretel, he was sent there because he failed to inform the authorities of his father's lack of loyalty to the Party.
- Which was his duty, I might add.
- Which was his bad luck.
- Bad luck?
- Well, bad luck that it was his father who was disloyal, and not his mother.
- One presumably doesn't have to report one's mother.
- What?
- When will Pavel be back?
- Mum?
- Never, stupid.
- It's Father. They've been bombed.
- Grandmother's dead.
- "...the victory which You have obtained for us and for all who sleep in Him, "keep us who are still in the body in everlasting fellowship "with all that wait for Thee on earth, "and with all that are around Thee in heaven, "in union with Him who is the resurrection "and the life, who liveth and reigneth with Thee and the Holy Ghost, "ever one God, world without end. Amen."
- He can't have that on there. She wouldn't have wanted it.
- He does.
- "Almighty God, who by the death of..."
- Have you ever been to a funeral?
- My grandma and grandpa both died just after we got here, but there weren't any funerals.
- That one there to there.
- They both died at the same time?
- What of?
- I don't know.
- Papa said they must have caught something on the way here.
- They had to go to a hospital as soon as we arrived.
- We didn't see them again.
- This is fun.
- Wish we could do something a bit more exciting, though.
- That one there to there.
- This one?
- This one?
- No, that one.
- This one to here?
- No, there!
- To here?
- No.
- Here?
- No.
- I don't want you to go away again.
- No. Neither do I.
- You can't behave like this!
- You're questioning my behaviour?
- It can't continue!
- I know. I can't stand this any more, Ralf.
- I can't stay here and be a part of this.
- Don't you think there will be questions?
- Questions?
- Well, now, what does it say about my ability to carry out my work if I cannot control my own family?
- Work? Is that what you call it?
- Pull yourself together, woman.
- Right. Just ignore it. Ignore it.
- Ignore the fact that the man I married is a monster!
- Even your own mother couldn't love you.
- Are you happy here?
- Yes. Very.
- And you, Gretel?
- Well, I was, but I do miss home. I miss my friends.
- Yes, I'm sure. And you, too, Bruno. You must miss those friends of yours.
- No. Not any more, really.
- I suppose the real question is, if the opportunity arose, would you prefer to live somewhere else?
- Back home?
- No. Not Berlin. Not yet.
- Somewhere safe, say Aunt Lottie's in Heidelberg, for example.
- All of us? You as well?
- No. That won't be possible just yet, I'm afraid.
- I must stay  and complete my work here.
- See, at the moment, your mother is finding it...
- She just feels right now you need to spend some time elsewhere.
- Would you like that?
- I'm afraid, Bruno, in life, we often have to do things we don't want to do.
- The important thing isyour mother does not feel that this is an appropriate place for you to be spending your childhood, and the more I think about it, the more I realise she's very probably right.
- But, Dad...
- No!
- It's time for you to move away.
- Is everything all right?
- We can't find Papa.
- He went on a different work duty with some of the men, and they haven't come back.
- I've got some bad news, too. I'm going away.
- How long for this time?
- That's why it's bad. It's forever, I think.
- Mum says this is no place for children, which is just stupid.
- When do you go?
- Tomorrow. After lunch.
- So, I won't ever see you again?
- Yes, you will. You can come on holiday to Berlin if you like, when everybody's getting on with each other again.
- I wish I could've helped you find your dad.
- I really want to make up for letting you down like I did.
- That would have done it, wouldn't it? Helping you find your dad?
- Would've been great. Like a secret mission.
- I could dig under.
- What? With that?
- No, but I could bring something.
- You don't want to come over here.
- Look.
- I could come through to your side.
- What's the point in that?
- Your dad's not going to be over here, is he?
- But I'd stick out though, wouldn't I, if I came through?
- I don't look like you.
- You could look like me, though.
- If you dressed like me and shaved your hair off.
- I'm not shaving my hair off.
- You could cover it with a cap.
- My pyjamas are a different colour.
- I could bring some. There's a hut full of them, thousands of them.
- Would you do it, though?
- I want to do it.
- Would you dare do it, though?
- I want to help you find your dad.
- I've got to go.
- Tomorrow, then?
- ll bring an extra-big sandwich.
- And don't forget the pyjamas!
- Bruno?
- Mum, can I go and play on the swing?
- Bruno...
- It's my last chance.
- All right. Go on then.
- I thought you weren't coming!
- I'm sorry. It wasn't easy to get away.
- I'm not meant to be out here today. You forgot the pyjamas!
- Did you bring the sandwich?
- Would I let you down?
- Shmuel.
- Here.
- How do I look?
- Right. Let's get going.
- Bruno?
- That's enough.
- Let's go and find your dad.
- Come on!
- Master Bruno?
- Shmuel.
- Can we go to the café or something?
- Café?
- Maybe I should go home.
- What about Papa?
- Yeah.
- We'll check our hut first.
- Bruno?
- Come on.
- Papa?
- Up! Up! Get up!
- What's happening?
- I don't know.
- We go on marches sometimes.
- Move! Up, up!
- Move, move!
- Bruno!
- He must still be outside somewhere, ma'am.
- Bruno!
- Bruno?
- Move!
- Quickly!
- Get up!
- Get up. You must!
- Move them out!
- ...which means that our weekly capabilities would be almost tripled, so, therefore, by the end of the summer...
-  Ralf.
- Elsa, I'm in a meeting.
- Bruno's missing.
- Come on!
- Wait here!
- Come on!
- Move! Move!
- Join the queue!
- Come on, you!
- Bruno!
- Move it!
- Go on.
- Bruno!
- It's all right. I think we're just waiting in here until the rain stops.
- Clothes off!
- Where are we going?
- No, it's just a shower.
- A shower?
- Open the gates! Open the gates!
- Move!
- Bruno!