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Thursday, June 7, 2012

What is Permaculture? Canh tác vĩnh cửu là gì?







What is Permaculture?

Canh tác vĩnh cửu là gì?
Permaculture (the word, coined by Bill Mollison, is a portmanteau of permanent agriculture and permanent culture) is the conscious design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems which have the diversity, stability, and resilience of natural ecosystems. It is the harmonious integration of landscape and people — providing their food, energy, shelter, and other material and non-material needs in a sustainable way. Without permanent agriculture there is no possibility of a stable social order.

Permaculture (từ này do Bill Mollison đặt ra, là từ ghép của nông nghiệp lâu bền và canh tác lâu bền) là mô hình thiết kế có ý thức và duy trì các hệ sinh thái sản xuất nông nghiệp có sự đa dạng, ổn định, và khả năng phục hồi của hệ sinh thái tự nhiên. Nó là sự tích hợp hài hòa của cảnh quan và con người - cung cấp thực phẩm, năng lượng, nơi trú ẩn, và thỏa mãn các nhu cầu vật chất và phi vật chất khác một cách bền vững. Nếu không có nông nghiệp vĩnh cửu không thể có một trật tự xã hội ổn định.

Permaculture design is a system of assembling conceptual, material, and strategic components in a pattern which functions to benefit life in all its forms.

Mô hình canh tác vĩnh cửu là một hệ thống tập hợp các thành tố khái niệm, vật liệu, và chiến lược trong một mô hình có chức năng mang lại lợi ích cho cuộc sống trong tất cả các hình thức của nó.

The philosophy behind permaculture is one of working with, rather than against, nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless action; of looking at systems in all their functions, rather than asking only one yield of them; and allowing systems to demonstrate their own evolutions.

Triết lý đằng sau canh tác vĩnh cửu có bản chất hợp tác, thay vì chống đối, quan sát lâu dài và chu đáo hơn là hành động nông nổi kéo dài, xem xét các hệ thống với tất cả các chức năng, chứ không phải chỉ đòi hỏi một mình năng suất, và cho phép hệ thống thể hiện diễn biến riêng của nó.

Steve Flaherty Vietnam War Letters: U.S. Soldier's Letters Finally Reach Home - Thư của lính Mỹ tử trận trong chiến tranh Việt Nam, Steve Flaherty cuối cùng đã về đến nhà














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The personal letters of U.S. Army Sgt. Steve Flaherty, who was killed in action in 1969, rest on a table at Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC) in Hanoi, Vietnam Monday, June 4, 2012. Vietnamese Defense Minister Phuong Quang Thanh presented the letters to U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta during a press conference at the defense ministry. (AP Photo/Jim Watson, Pool)

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This portrait, provided by the U.S. Department of Defense shows the high school portrait of U.S. Army Sgt. Steve Flaherty, who was killed in action in Vietnam in 1969. The portrait was included in Flaherty's personal letters that were returned to U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta by Vietnamese Minister of Defense Phung Quang Thanh during a press conference at the Ministry of Defense in Hanoi, Vietnam, on Monday, June 4, 2012. (AP Photo/Pool)

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The personal letters of U.S. Army Sgt. Steve Flaherty, who was killed in action in 1969, rest on a table at Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC) in Hanoi, Vietnam Monday, June 4, 2012. Vietnamese Defense Minister Phuong Quang Thanh presented the letters to U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta during a press conference at the defense ministry. (AP Photo/Jim Watson, Pool)

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Vietnamese Minister of Defense Phung Quang Thanh, right, presents the personal letters of U.S. Army Sgt. Steve Flaherty, who was killed in action in 1969, to U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta during a press conference at the ministry in Hanoi, Vietman, on Monday, June 4, 2012. (AP Photo/Jim Watson, Pool)

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U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta, left, gives Vietnam War memorabilia of a Vietnamese soldier, which was kept by the U.S., to his Vietnamese counterpart Phung Quang Thanh during a joint press conference at Ministry of Defense in Hanoi, Vietnam, Monday, June 4, 2012. (AP Photo/Na Son Nguyen)


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A picture rests next to the diary of Vietnamese solider Vu Dinh Doan, which was taken by U.S. Marine Robert Frazure following Operation Indiana in 1966, at the Ministry of Defense in Hanoi, in Vietnam, on Monday, June 4, 2012. U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta presented the diary to Vietnamese Minister of Defense Phuong Quang Thanh during a press conference at the ministry. (AP Photo/Jim Watson, Pool)

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A Defense Department official leafs through the diary of a Vietnamese soldier Vu Dinh Doan, which was taken by U.S. Marine Robert Frazure following Operation Indiana in 1966, while at the Ministry of Defense in Hanoi, Vietman, on Monday, June 4, 2012. U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta presented the diary to Vietnamese Minister of Defense Phuong Quang Thanh during a press conference at the ministry. (AP Photo/Jim Watson, Pool)

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U.S Defense Secretary Leon Panetta, left, receives a photo album of his visit to Vietnam from Gen. Vu Chien Thang upon his departure at Noi Bai International Airport in Hanoi, Vietnam Tuesday, June 5, 2012. (AP Photo/Jim Watson, Pool)







Steve Flaherty Vietnam War Letters: U.S. Soldier's Letters Finally Reach Home

HANOI, Vietnam (AP) — Defense Secretary Leon Panetta and Vietnam Defense Minister Phung Quang Thanh exchanged long-held artifacts Monday collected during the Vietnam war — including letters written by a U.S. soldier who was killed. Instead, the letters written by Army Sgt. Steve Flaherty of Columbia, S.C., were used by the North Vietnamese for propaganda. Here are some excerpts of Flaherty's letters:

Letter to "Betty"

"I'm sorry for not writing so long but we have been in a fierce fight with N.V.A. We took in lots of casualties and death. It has been trying days for me and my men. We dragged more bodies of dead and wounded than I can ever want to forget."

"Thank you for your sweet card. It made my miserable day a much better one but I don't think I will ever forget the bloody fight we are having."

"RPG rockets and machine guns really tore my rucksack."

"I felt bullets going past me. I have never been so scared in my life. Well I better close for now before we go in again to take that hill."

Letter to "Mother"

"I definitely will take R&R, I don't care where so long as I get a rest, which I need so badly, soon. I'll let you know exact date."

"If Dad calls, tell him I got too close to being dead but I'm O.K. I was real lucky. I'll write again soon."

"Our platoon started off with 35 men but winded up with 19 men when it was over. We lost platoon leader and whole squad."

"The NVA soldiers fought until they died and one even booby trapped himself and when we approached him, he blew himself up and took two of our men with him."

Letter to "Mrs. Wyatt"

"Our platoon leader was killed and I was the temporary platoon leader until we got the replacement. Nothing seems to go well for us but we'll take that ridge line."

"This is a dirty and cruel war but I'm sure people will understand the purpose of this war even though many of us might not agree."