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Friday, December 23, 2011

Myrtle Corbin, the Four Legged Woman. Myrtle Corbin, người phụ nữ bốn chân


Myrtle Corbin, the Four Legged Woman.

Myrtle Corbin, người phụ nữ bốn chân

While at a glance one could plainly see four legs dangling beyond the hem of her dress – only one pair belonged to her, the other set to her dipygus twin sister. Born in Cleburne, Texan in 1868 – her condition was incredibly rare. The tiny body of her twin was only fully developed from the waist down and even then it was malformed – tiny and possessing only three toes on each foot. Myrtle was able to control the limbs of her sister but was unable to use them for walking and she herself had a difficult time getting around as she was born with a clubbed foot. Technically, the ‘Four-Legged Woman’ only had one good, usable leg.

Thoạt nhìn qua, người ta rõ ràng có thể nhìn thấy bốn cái chân lủng lẳng dưới váy– nhưng chỉ có một đôi chân thuộc về cô, đôi chân kia là của người em sinh đôi ký sinh của cô. Sinh tại Cleburne, Texas vào năm 1868 - tình ttrường hợp của cô là vô cùng hiếm. Cơ thể nhỏ bé sin của cô em sinh đôi chỉ phát triển đầy đủ từ thắt lưng trở xuống và thậm chí sau đó nó cũng bị biến dạng và chỉ có ba ngón chân trên mỗi bàn chân. Myrtle có thể để kiểm soát hai chân của em gái mình nhưng không thể sử dụng chúng để đi bộ và chính cũng gặp khó khăn khi đi lại vì cô được sinh ra với một bàn chân gập vào trong. Trên thực tế, người phụ nữ bốn chân này chỉ có một, chân có thể sử dụng.

Myrtle was a popular attraction with P.T. Barnum, and later with Ringling Bros. and Coney Island. Her popularity was likely linked to her showmanship – she would often dress the extra limbs with socks and shoes matching her own and this gave her a truly surreal appearance. Myrtle was so popular that she was able to earn as much as $450 dollars a week.

Myrtle là một nhân vật hấp dẫn nổi tiếng của công ty P.T. Barnum, và sau đó là Ringling Bros và Coney Island. Cô nổi tiếng có lẽ bởi khả năng trình diễn - cô thường mặc vớ và giày cho hai chân thừa cùng kiểu với hai chân kia của mình và điều này đã cho tạo cho cô một hình ảnh siêu thực. Myrtle có tiếng đến mức cô có thể kiếm được đến $450 đô la một tuần.

At the age of 19 Myrtle married a doctor named Clinton Bicknell. It was then that other aspects of her bizarre anatomy became evident. It seems that her twin sister was also fully sexually formed – thus Myrtle possessed two vaginas. She had four daughters and a son and it has been rumored that three of her children were born from one set of organs and two from the other. Whether this is true or not; it is medically possible. In Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine by George M. Gould and Walter L. Pyle it was observed that both vaginas menstruated – thus indicating both were possibly sexually functional.

Năm 19 tuổi, Myrtle kết hôn với một bác sĩ tên là Clinton Bicknell. Chính lúc đó các khía cạnh khác về giải phẫu học kỳ lạ của cô mới trở thành hiển nhiên. Có vẻ như người em sinh đôi của cô cũng phát triển hoàn thiện về mặt sinh dục, do đó, Myrtle sở hữu hai âm đạo. Cô có bốn con gái và một con trai và người ta đồn đại rằng ba đứa con được sinh ra từ một âm đạo và hai đứa khác từ âm đạo kia. Cho dù điều này là đúng hay không, thì về mặt y học là có thể. Trong cuốn sách Bất thường và Sự lạ trong Y học George M. Gould và Walter L. Pyle đã quan sát thấy rằng cả hai âm đạo đều có kinh nguyệt – điều đó cho thấy cả hai đều có thể có chức năng sinh dục.

Myrtle passed on May 6, 1928, surrounded by family and friends.

Myrtle qua đời ngày 06 tháng năm 1928, xung quanh là gia đình và bạn bè.



Nguoi phu nu bon chan


Natural Collagen Types - Các loại Collagen tự nhiên


Natural Collagen Types

Collagen occurs in many places throughout the body. The 29 types of collagen have thus far been identified and described in literature. Over 90% of the collagen in the body, however, are of type I, II, III, and IV.

  • Collagen One: skin, tendon, vascular, ligature, organs, bone (main component of bone)
  • Collagen Two: cartilage (main component of cartilage)
  • Collagen Three: reticulate (main component of reticular fibers), commonly found alongside type I
  • Collagen Four: forms bases of cell basement membrane
  • Collagen Five: cells surfaces, hair and placenta
  • Collagen Six: stomach membrane, skin and cartilage
  • Collagen Seven: skin, lungs, cornea
  • Collagen Eight: unknown
  • Collagen Nine: cartilage
  • Collagen Ten: produces chronodrocites during ossification
  • Collagen Eleven: cartilage, intervertevral cartilage and bone enamel
  • Collagen Twelve: ligaments, tendons and tooth enamel

The following table presents the occurrence in organs of a selected collagen types - the results of immunologic studies show that the synthesis of this collagen type in skin takes place not only in fibroblasts, but also in the keratinocyte layer - epidermis.


The following table represents the skin layers and their definitions:


The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the epidermis, composed of large, flat, polyhedral, plate-like envelopes filled with keratin, which is made up of dead cells that have migrated up from the stratum granulosum. From the Latin for horned layer, this skin layer is composed mainly of dead cells that lack nuclei. As these dead cells slough off on the surface in the thin air-filled stratum disjunctum, they are continuously replaced by new cells from the stratum germinativum (basale). In the human forearm, for example, about 1300 cells/cm2/hr are shed and commonly accumulate as house dust. This outer layer that is sloughed off is also known as the stratum dysjunctum.

Cells of the stratum corneum contain keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing water evaporation. These cells can also absorb water, further aiding in hydration, and explaining why humans and other animals experience wrinkling of the skin on the fingers and toes ("pruning") when immersed in water for prolonged periods. In addition, this layer is responsible for the "spring back" or stretchy properties of skin. A weak glutenous protein bond pulls the skin back to its natural shape.

The thickness of the stratum corneum varies according to the amount of protection and/or grip required by a region of the body. For example, the hands are typically used to grasp objects, requiring the palms to be covered with a thick stratum corneum. In a similar manner, the sole of the foot is prone to injury, and so it is protected with a thick stratum corneum layer. In general, the stratum corneum contains 15 to 20 layers of dead cells. The stratum corneum has a thickness between 10 and 40 μm.

In reptiles, the stratum corneum is permanent, and is replaced only during times of rapid growth, in a process called ecdysis or moulting. The stratum corneum in reptiles contains beta-keratin, which provides a much more rigid skin layer.

The stratum lucidum is a layer of the epidermis found throughout the body, but is thickest on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Located between the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum layers. It is composed of three to five layers of dead, flattened keratinocytes. The thickness of the lucidum is controled by the rate of mitosis of the epidermal cells. In addition, melanocytes determine the darkness of the stratum lucidum.

The stratum granulosum (or granular layer) is a layer of the epidermis found between the stratum corneum (and possibly stratum lucidum) and stratum spinosum. In this layer, keratinocytes are now called granular cells, and contain keratohyalin and lamellar granules.

The stratum spinosum (or spinous layer) is a layer of the epidermis found between the stratum granulosum and stratum basale. This layer is also referred to as the "spinous" or "prickle-cell" layer. This apearence is due to desmosomal connections of adjacent cells. The cells in the stratum spinosum produce and secrete bipolar lipids which prevent evaporation, helping to "water-proof" the skin. Keratinization begins in the stratum spinosum.

The stratum germinativum (or basal layer, stratum basale) is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, which is the outer covering of skin in mammals. The stratum germinativum is a continuous layer of cells. It is often described as one cell thick, though it may in fact be two to three cells thick in glabrous (hairless) skin and hyperproliferative epidermis (from a skin disease).

The basal cells of the stratum germinativum can be considered the stem cells of the epidermis. They are undifferentiated, and they proliferate. They create 'daughter' cells that migrate superficially, differentiating as they do so. The keratinocytes of the stratum germinativum undergo mitosis continually throughout the individual's life.

Melanocytes, the pigment producing cells of the epidermis, are primarily found in the stratum germinativum.


Integumentary System

Skin - epidermis: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum (or granular layer), stratum spinosum (or basal layer, stratum basale).

Basement membrane zone: basal keratinocyte, lamina lucida, lamina densa.

Dermis: papillary, reticular

Subcutaneous Tissue: panniculus adiposus, panniculus carnosus, stratum membranosum, loose connective tissue, superfacial fascia

Andexa

Glands: sweat glands, apocrine, eccrine, sebaceous

Hair: outer rooth sheath, inner root sheath, shaft (cuticle, cortex, medulla, bulb with matrix cells, hair papilla)

Muscle: arrector pili

Nail: matrix, lunula, nail plate, eponychium, paronychium, hyponuchium

Other: skin flora

The Integumentary System (Elimination) is the skin, which is the largest and most important organ in the body. It is the first barrier of defense. Its function is to maintain body temperature and protect the body from bacteria and foreign substances. Some diseases affect the general skin tone, color, and health. Many physicians evaluate the skin to determine general health and to diagnose illness. Healthy skin function as a protective covering for our bodies in several ways. Because our skin is almost completely waterproof, it prevents the escape of special fluids that bathe body tissues. Our skin prevents many bacteria and chemicals form entering parts of our bodies. Firm, moist skin also protects underlying tissues form the harmful rays of the sun. The skin weight (in most adults) 20 lbs or more, accounting for about 16% of total body weigh making it the heaviest organ. Its function is to protect the body. Within these layers of tissue are cells, glands, blood vessels, and fatty tissue.

The Function and Structure of the Skin

The skin has three layers of tissue:

  • The Epidermis - the outermost layer of tissue of covers most parts of the body. The epidermis has four layers. From the outermost to the innermost, they are the horny, granular, spinous and basal layers. The horny layer consists of about 15-40 rows of dying cells. These cells are filled with a tough, waterproof protein called keratin. The granular layer consists of one or two rows of dying cells that contain small grains of a substance called keratohyaline. The spinous layer is composed of 4-10 rows of living cells that have spine-like projections where the cells touch one another. The basal layer is also made u of living cells, including cells called melanocytes. These cells produce a brown pigment called melanin. The basal cells divide continually and form daughter cells. Some daughter cells remain in the basal layer. others move toward the outer surface of the skin and eventually form the upper layers of the epidermis. These cells are called keratinocytes, and they produce keratin which is found only in the epidermis, hair and mails. Keratin makes the skin tough and also prevents fluids and certain substances from passing through the skin. As the keratinocyetes move upward through the epidermis, the become filled with more and more keratin. By the time these cells reach the surface of the skin, they have died and become flat and dry - eventually they are shed in thin flakes.
  • The Dermis - the middle layer tissue is between 15-40 times thicker than the epidermis. It is made up primarily of blood vessels, nerve endings and connective tissue. The blood vessels nourish both the dermis and the epidermis . The surface of the dermis has many tiny elevations called papillae that fit into pits on the undersurface of the epidermis. They help connect the dermis to the epidermis. The papillae contain nerve endings that are sensitive to touch. The nerve endings are specially numerous on the palms and fingertips.
  • Subcutaneous Tissue - is a much thicker than the epidermis and the dermis. In addition to these layers of tissue, the skin includes hair, nails, and certain glands. it consists mainly of connective tissue which helps protect the body form blows and other kinds of injuries. It also helps retain body heat. The amount of fat in the subcutaneous tissue may increase after a person overeats. If the body needs extra food energy, it breaks down this stored fat. The hair and glands in the skin are called Epidermal Appendages. They are formed form the basal cells of the epidermis.

Skin Types
  • Normal Skin - has n average amount of oil, giving the skin a smooth appearance. Normal skin does not have acne, and wrinkles usually occur later in life.
  • Oily Skin - has an abundance of oil production giving the skin a "greasy" or shiny appearance. Oily skin has larger pores, blemishes, and is prone to acne. Wrinkling is retarded due to the extra surface oil, which protects the skin from pollutants in the environment.
  • Dry Skin - has an average to below average amount of oil, thus giving the skin a dull appearance (i.e. flaky) . Dry sin is irritated by hot, dry climates and unprotected exposure to the sun and the environment.
  • Combination Skin - characterized by generalized normal skin with areas of oiliness. These oily areas are usually on the lower forehead, nose and sometimes the chin. Fine wrinkles seldom occur until later in life.
  • Sensitive Skin - a new term used to describe skin that is allergic to certain substance (foods, cosmetics, or drugs). Usually the allergic person knows what products cause the allergic reaction. In cosmetics, many allergic reactions are caused from fragrances and show up as changes in the skin (e.g. burning, itching, or red blotches on the skin). In addition some people who have allergic reaction to certain foods, cosmetics or drugs find that the sun, coupled with the allergen causes the reaction to be worse.

The skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of mesodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is not unlike that of most other mammals except that it is not protected by a pelt and appears hairless though in fact nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles. The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis, skin).

Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays a key role in protecting (the body) against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented.

In humans, skin pigmentation varies among populations, and skin type can range from dry to oily. Such skin variety provides a rich and diverse habit for bacteria which number roughly a 1000 species from 19 phyla.
Collagen produced by the keratinocyte layer freely moves in the extracellular space. Basement membrane and proper skin are built of type I collagen. Skin is the largest organ on our body, made up of several different components, including water, protein, lipids and different minerals and chemicals. Throughout your life your skin will change. Proper care and treatment is essential to maintain the healthy and vitality of your skin.

Skin performs the following functions:

  1. Protection: an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.
  2. Sensation: contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat and cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury; see somatosensory system and haptics.
  3. Heat regulation: the skin contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heatloss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat. Erector pili muscles are significant in animals.
  4. Control of evaporation: the skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss. Loss of this function contributes to the massive fluid loss in burns.
  5. Aesthetics and communication: others see our skin and can assess our mood, physical state and attractiveness.
  6. Storage and synthesis: acts as a storage center for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of vitamin D by action of UV on certain parts of the skin.
  7. Excretion: sweat contains urea, however its concentration is 1/130th that of urine, hence excretion by sweating is at most a secondary function to temperature regulation.
  8. Absorption: Oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide can diffuse into the epidermis in small amounts, some animals using their skin for their sole respiration organ (contrary to popular belief, however, humans do not absorb oxygen through the skin). In addition, medicine can be administered through the skin, by ointments or by means of adhesive patch, such as the nicotine patch or iontophoresis. The skin is an important site of transport in many other organisms.
  9. Water resistance: The skin acts as a water resistant barrier so essential nutrients aren't washed out of the body.

Skins proteins
  1. Collagen: it's the most abundant protein in the skin, making up 75% of your skin. Over time, enviromental factors and aging diminish your body's ability to produce collagen.
  2. Elastin: this protein is found with collagen in the dermis. It's a protein, responsible for giving structure to your skin and organs. As with collagen, elastin is affected by time and the elements, diminished levels of this protein cause your skin to wrinkle and sag.
  3. Keratin: dominant protein in your skin makes up hair, nails and the surface layer of the skin. Keratin is what forms the rigidity of your skin.

Organ of sight
  1. Hydrated collagen can be found in lenses, toghether with polysaccharides it forms the optic disc. Natural Collagen enhances visual acuity when applied on eye-lids.

Hair
  1. Collagen constitures the supporting material of hair follicles. Collagen pigment is identical with hair pigment.
  2. Natural Collagen restore beauty to the hair - gray hair gets darker, brows and eye lashes start growing again.

Bones

  1. Together with calcium and phosphorus salts type I collagen constitutes the bone building material, it forms 95% of bone matrix. It undergoes all physiological changes, life biological cycles, diseases and diets.

Nerves and vessels

  1. Collagen is a component of nerve fiber myelin sheath, spinal cord, brain meninges, and nerve cell basement membranes. Vessels - arterial, venous, lymphatic.
Digestive system image


Alimentary tract

  1. Type II and III Collagen is the scaffold supporting stomach, intestine and esophagus parietal cells.

Collagen and menopause
  1. The decrease of collagen turnover in women in perimenopausal period causes a number of diseases of the bone system and genitals. In urinary-genital system the disturbances of genital and urinary tracts trophiecs and statics are most common.
  2. C. Falconer advises that commonly used hormone replacement therapy results in the increase of hydrated type II and III collagen store in the urinary-genital system. Falconer has also shown that a number of collagen quantity and quality. The lack or small production volume of type II and III collagen by connective tissue cells cause the deficit of hydrated collagen in extracellular space. In such case the supply of estrogen results in dramatic improvement.

Collagen is the most powerful protein in our system (from Greek - means healing, bonding). Its highest quantities occur in the skeletal system, skin, organ of sight, kidneys, liver, alimentary tract. The extracellular fluid in which we are submerged consists of collagen, which flows around the organs, supplementing existing structural defects.

Collagen is produced in the cells of connective tissues, fibroblast and in chondrocytes of the bone tissue. Sexual hormones, the growth hormone and growth factors, adrenal cortex and thyroid hormones participate in its biosynthetic process. The turnover of collagen occurs throughout our lives. Shortages are being replaced and in the aging process degeneration dominates over its synthesis in the skeletal system.

Colway is not responsible for any damages incurred as a result of storage and transportation of the product at a temperature other than 5-28°C, in the light of the sun or in conditions, which could enable the penetration of bacterial fauna into the vials.

Persons or businesses interested in the distribution of Natural Collagen and other natural products, which are offered by Colway please contact us by email: CustomerService@ElizabethsBargainBin.com

Please note: Not known to cause side effects.

Warning:

Natural Collagen not to be used in conjunction with chemotherapy, collagenoses or a low protein diet.

Note. The collagen hydrate may differ in color and density. This is due to the characteristics of the raw material and is typical of natural products.

Certificates:

  • The National Information System of Cosmetics Lunched On the Market - Register number RK/83374/2003
  • National Institure Of Hygiene - Certificate number HZ/7849/01/2003
  • Republic of Poland Patent Office - patent documentation, marked by number P373879
  • All products are made in Poland for Colway Unlimited

Please allow 4-6 weeks for the delivery.