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Friday, April 8, 2011

New York set to be big loser as sea levels rise- New York chịu hậu quả nặng nề khi mực nước biển tăng

New York set to be big loser as sea levels rise- New York chịu hậu quả nặng nề khi mực nước biển tăng

New York (Image: BBC)
Places like New York are projected to experience an above average sea level increase

New York is a major loser and Reykjavik a winner from new forecasts of sea level rise in different regions.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said in 2007 that sea levels would rise at least 28cm (1ft) by the year 2100.

But this is a global average; and now a Dutch team has made what appears to be the first attempt to model all the factors leading to regional variations.

Other researchers say the IPCC's figure is likely to be a huge under-estimate.

Whatever the global figure turns out to be, there will be regional differences.

Ocean currents and differences in the temperature and salinity of seawater are among the factors that mean sea level currently varies by up a metre across the oceans - this does not include short-term changes due to tides or winds.

So if currents change with global warming, which is expected - and if regions such as the Arctic Ocean become less saline as ice sheets discharge their contents into the sea - the regional patterns of peaks and troughs will also change.

"Everybody will still have the impact, and in many places they will get the average rise," said Roderik van der Wal from the University of Utrecht, one of the team presenting their regional projections at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) meeting in Vienna.

"But places like New York are going to have a larger contribution than the average - 20% more in this case - and Reykjavik will be better off."

Of the 13 regions where the team makes specific projections, New York sees the biggest increase from the global average, although Vancouver, Tasmania and The Maldives are also forecast to see above-average impacts.

Gravity trap

One peculiarity of the projections is that areas closer to melting ice sheets will experience a smaller sea level rise than those further away.

Graphic showing sea level variations (Eumetsat)

Sea level rise is not set to be consistent around the globe

This is because ice sheets such as those on Greenland or Antarctica gravitationally attract the water.

This pulls the water towards the coast, effectively making it pile up to an extent that can be measured in centimetres.

If the ice begins to melt, it raises the average sea level simply by entering the sea; but the gravitational pull is now smaller, so locally the sea level may go down.

"So if the Greenland sheet melts more, that's better for New York; but if Antarctica melts, that's worse for New York - and it's equally true for northwestern Europe," Professor van der Wal told BBC News.

The effects are particularly pronounced for Reykjavik, the closest capital to Greenland, which is projected to receive less than half the global average sea level rise.

Ice sheet question

Roderik van der Wal is one of scientists working on the sea level projections that will be included in the next IPCC assessment, due out in 2013-4.

Before then, other scientists are likely to have completed more regional models that can be put into this mix

"We're right at the beginning of making regional projections, and at this point there is still a lot of uncertainty," commented Stefan Rahmstorf, a sea level specialist from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany.

"But it is clear that some parts of the world will feel sea level rise much more quickly than other parts; and an additional factor is land movements.

"In some places such as a lot of the Scandinavian coastline, the land is rising so fast that they will not have any problem with sea level rise in the near future, whereas in other places the land is subsiding - that includes some of the world's big delta cities."

Just before the last IPCC report came out in 2007, Professor Rahmstorf published research showing that sea levels had been rising faster that climate models predicted.

Since then, he and others, using various techniques, have concluded that somewhere between half a metre and two metres is likely by the end of the century.

He came to the EGU with a further analysis putting the likely range at 0.75-1.9m - the range reflecting uncertainties in how ice sheets may melt, and in how society may or may not respond to the findings of climate scientists by controlling greenhouse gas emissions.

Traffic Safety Poster Contest 2 - Thi vẽ áp-phích cổ động An Toàn Giao thông 2

Traffic Safety Poster Contest 2 - Thi vẽ áp-phích cổ động An Toàn Giao thông 2

its 65th year, AAA's Traffic Safety Poster Contest communicates safety messages in schools, encourages peer-to-peer communication through creativity and establishes trust in AAA for future members and their parents.

The program continues its primary aim of reducing traffic and pedestrian crashes, the No. 1 cause of death for children ages 3 to 14.

Older students are invited to compete in subject categories relevant to novice driver safety. Students of all ages illustrate a selected safety category, under the supervision of dedicated educators and youth leaders. The program allows youth to become creative in slogan design while striving to create memorable entries, leading others to safety through example and enthusiasm. Entries are judged locally and nationally for recognition.

More than $18,000 in prize money was awarded to the 2009 national winners.

In addition to Flickr.com, winning entries are also posted on other official AAA social media sites including YouTube.com/AAA and MySpace.com/AAAeveryday.

The 2009 AAA Traffic Safety Poster Contest categories were:

PRIMARY (Grades K-2):
Pedestrian and Child Passenger Safety
(Night Time Visibility, Proper Use of Booster Seats)

ELEMENTARY (Grades 3-5):
Getting to School Safely
(Obey Your AAA School Safety Patrols, Helmet Use, Interacting With Motorists)

JUNIOR HIGH (Grades 6-8):
How to be a Good Passenger
(Buckle Up, Don’t Distract the Driver, Dangers of Using a Cell Phone or Changing the Radio/CD While Driving)

SENIOR HIGH (Grades 9-12):
Safe Teen Driving
(Alcohol Awareness, Distracted Driving, Aggressive Driving/Speeding)

photo

When you go to school, follow the rules


photo

Stop and Look

photo

A turtle doesn't go anywhere without a shell, and a bicyclist doesn't go anywhere without a helmet.

photo

Your Satisfaction can be a Distraction

photo

Buckle Up

photo

The Belt That's Always in Fashion

photo

Txt and drive you won't survive :(

photo

Stay Back, Don't Distract

photo

Don't Distract the Driver

photo

Road Rider Rules

photo

It's as eas as... 1. 2. 3. Buckle Up! Save a Life.

photo

Missing Something?

photo

Don't Distract the Driver

photo

Watch out for yourself... & others

photo

Beer Goggles Won't Improve Your Looks

photo

Don't Gamble With Your Life; Drive Safely

photo

What's Your Destination? Don't Drink and Drive.

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Donorcycles: Start young, always wear a helmet

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'B there in a sec' - Driver; 'I Know' - God

photo

Teen Driving Insanity 2



Traffic Safety Poster Contest - Thi vẽ áp-phích cổ động An Toàn Giao thông

Traffic Safety Poster Contest - Thi vẽ áp-phích cổ động An Toàn Giao thông

In its 65th year, AAA's Traffic Safety Poster Contest communicates safety messages in schools, encourages peer-to-peer communication through creativity and establishes trust in AAA for future members and their parents.

The program continues its primary aim of reducing traffic and pedestrian crashes, the No. 1 cause of death for children ages 3 to 14.

Older students are invited to compete in subject categories relevant to novice driver safety. Students of all ages illustrate a selected safety category, under the supervision of dedicated educators and youth leaders. The program allows youth to become creative in slogan design while striving to create memorable entries, leading others to safety through example and enthusiasm. Entries are judged locally and nationally for recognition.

More than $18,000 in prize money was awarded to the 2009 national winners.

In addition to Flickr.com, winning entries are also posted on other official AAA social media sites including YouTube.com/AAA and MySpace.com/AAAeveryday.

The 2009 AAA Traffic Safety Poster Contest categories were:

PRIMARY (Grades K-2):
Pedestrian and Child Passenger Safety
(Night Time Visibility, Proper Use of Booster Seats)

ELEMENTARY (Grades 3-5):
Getting to School Safely
(Obey Your AAA School Safety Patrols, Helmet Use, Interacting With Motorists)

JUNIOR HIGH (Grades 6-8):
How to be a Good Passenger
(Buckle Up, Don’t Distract the Driver, Dangers of Using a Cell Phone or Changing the Radio/CD While Driving)

SENIOR HIGH (Grades 9-12):
Safe Teen Driving
(Alcohol Awareness, Distracted Driving, Aggressive Driving/Speeding)

photo

Booster Safe Than Sorry!


photo

Look & Listen B4 Crossin' Driveways

photo

Is this conversation worth your life?

photo

Seriously???

photo

Distractions = Crashes

photo

Night Time Visibility - Wear White

photo

Look left, look right, then look left again before crossing

photo

Look both ways befor you cross the street

photo

Be Bright at Night; Stay in Sight

photo

Walk on the sidewalk, not the street

photo

Be Bright with a Flashlight

photo

Be Bright at Night

photo

Stop on Red; Kids Ahead

photo

Be Bright at Night

photo

Be Seen at Night

photo

Look Both Ways

photo

Listen to your safety patrol at your school

photo

Keep safety your primary goal; Obey your AAA School Safety Patrol

photo

Use Your Head, Wear a Helmet

photo

Avoid the worst; Put safety first

photo

Be Safe, Wear a Helmet

photo

Keep Your Head on Track

photo

Seguridad camino a la escuela

photo

There is safety in numbers



Traffic Safety Contest - Cuộc thi tìm Hiểu An Toàn Giao Thông


Traffic Safety Contest - Cuộc thi tìm Hiểu An Toàn Giao Thông

HCM CITY — About 250 children from 15 provinces nationwide took part in the National Traffic Safety Contest for Primary School Pupils in HCM City on April 2-3.

Vào ngày mùng 2 và mùng 3 tháng 4 khoảng 250 học sinh từ 15 tỉnh thành trên toàn quốc đã tham gia cuộc thi “Tìm hiểu an toàn giao thông quốc gia” dành cho học sinh tiểu học được tổ chức tại thành phố HCM.

The teams were selected from local contests that had a total participation of 4,000 pupils.

Các đội đã được chọn từ các cuộc thi tại địa phương với sự tham gia của 4000 học sinh.

"Traffic safety education is considered to be the most important, urgent issue for the education sector," said Tran Quang Quy, deputy minister of Education and Training.

Ông Trần Quang Huy thứ trưởng Bộ giáo dục và đào tạo cho biết “Giáo dục an toàn giao thông được xem là vấn đề quan trọng và cấp bách nhất của ngành giáo dục.”

The contest consisted of four main parts, including traffic safety knowledge, drawing pictures, performing role plays and composing poems, and writing and performing folk songs with new lyrics.

Cuộc thi bao gồm 4 phần chính trong đó có thi tìm hiểu kiến thức về an toàn giao thông, vẽ trang, diễn kịch và sáng tác thơ, viết và thể hiện lại các bài hát dân gian với lời mới.

Interesting games related to traffic safety and other activities were created to create a fun, joyful learning atmosphere.

Các trò chơi thú vị lien quan tới an toàn giao thông cùng các hoạt động khác đã được thực hiện nhằm tạo ra bầu không khí học tập vui vẻ.

The contest is part of the Toyota and I Learn About Traffic (TSEP) programme, organised by Toyota Viet Nam Foundation (TVF) in cooperation with the MinistryTraffic Safety Committee. of Education and Training (MOET) and the National TSEP has been implemented since the school year 2005-2006. It provides teacher manuals and teaching materials on traffic safety for teachers and pupils in all primary schools.

Cuộc thi là 1 phần của chương trình “Toyota cùng em tìm hiểu an toàn giao thông TSEP” được Tổng công ty Toyota Việt Nam và Ủy ban an toàn giao thông, Bộ giáo dục đào tạo tổ chức từ năm học 2005-2006. Chương trình hỗ trợ tài liệu về an toàn giao thông cho giáo viên và học sinh ở tất cả trường tiểu học.

Role plays are performed and seminars are organised for teachers and education officers to introduce TSEP and explain its deeper social impact.

Các buổi biểu diễn hoạt cảnh ATGT và hội thảo đã được tổ chức cho giáo viên và các cán bộ giáo dục nhằm giới thiệu chương trình TSEP và giải thích về ảnh hưởng sâu hơn của chương trình tới xã hội.

After five years of implementation, the programme has provided more than 7.5 million traffic-safety publications to first graders over the past five years since 2005.

Sau năm năm thưc hiện từ năm 2005 chương trình đã cung cấp hơn 7.5 triệu ấn bản an toàn giao thông cho học sinh lớp 1.

It freely distributed 82,000 VCDs and 82,000 guidebooks to teach traffic safety to elementary teachers, and 32 seminars for 5,000 key managers and teachers.

Tặng miễn phí 82000 đĩa VCD và 82000 sách hướng dẫn giúp các giáo viên tiểu học giảng dạy về an toàn giao thông và mở 32 cuộc hội thảo chuyên đề cho 5000 cán bộ quản lý và giáo viên điền hình.

Around 20 provincial traffic safety contests, with a total of 10,000 pupils and three national contests for 7,000 elementary students, were organised.

Ten provinces have performed hand puppet shows in 700 primary schools before 427,000 students.

Có khoảng 20 cuộc thi ở các tỉnh thành với sự tham gia của 10000 học sinh và 3 cuộc thi quốc gia với 7000 học sinh tham gia đã được tổ chức.

10 tỉnh đã có các buổi trình diễn múa rối tay tại 700 trường tiểu học cho 427000 học sinh.

"In order to reach the Government's target of preventing bad traffic accidents, we must mobilise all social resources and political organisations as well as individuals. Toyota Viet Nam Foundation is the pioneer in traffic safety education with new ideas and methods," said Than Van Thanh, the deputy head of National Traffic Safety Committee. — VNS

Ông Thân Văn Thanh, phó chủ nhiệm Ủy ban an toàn giao thông quốc gia nói “Để đạt được mục tiêu của chính phủ nhằm giảm các vụ tai nạn giao thông nghiêm trọng, chúng ta phải huy động tất cả nguồn lực xã hội các tổ chức chính trị cũng như các cá nhân. Tập đoàn Toyota đã đi đầu về giáo dục an toàn giao thông với các phương pháp và ý tưởng mới.”

TTXVN

Translated by Mr Bill