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Wednesday, August 17, 2011

Penis Cancer - Ung thư Dương vật


Penis Cancer - Ung thư Dương vật
Penile cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the penis.

The penis is a rod-shaped male reproductive organ that passes sperm and urine from the body. It contains two types of erectile tissue (spongy tissue with blood vessels that fill with blood to make an erection):
Corpora cavernosa: The two columns of erectile tissue that form most of the penis.
Corpus spongiosum: The single column of erectile tissue that forms a small portion of the penis. The corpus spongiosum surrounds the urethra (the tube through which urine and sperm pass from the body).
The erectile tissue is wrapped in connective tissue and covered with skin. The glans (head of the penis) is covered with loose skin called the foreskin.
Human papillomavirus infection may increase the risk of developing penile cancer.
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. People who think they may be at risk should discuss this with their doctor. Risk factors for penile cancer include the following:
Circumcision may help prevent infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). A circumcision is an operation in which the doctor removes part or all of the foreskin from the penis. Many boys are circumcised shortly after birth. Men who were not circumcised at birth may have a higher risk of developing penile cancer.
Other risk factors for penile cancer include the following:
Being age 60 or older.
Having phimosis (a condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be pulled back over the glans).
Having poor personal hygiene.
Having many sexual partners.
Using tobacco products.

Possible signs of penile cancer include sores, discharge, and bleeding.

These and other symptoms may be caused by penile cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:
Redness, irritation, or a sore on the penis.
A lump on the penis.

Tests that examine the penis are used to detect (find) and diagnose penile cancer.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking the penis for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer.
Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:
The stage of the cancer.
The location and size of the tumor.
Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).
Stages of penile cancer
After penile cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the penis or to other parts of the body.
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the penis or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:
CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. A substance called gadolinium is injected into a vein. The gadolinium collects around the cancer cells so they show up brighter in the picture. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram.
There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:
Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.
When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.
The following stages are used for penile cancer:

Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ)
In stage 0, abnormal cells are found on the surface of the skin of the penis. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.
Stage I
In stage I, cancer has formed and spread to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis.
Stage II
In stage II, cancer has spread to:
connective tissue just under the skin of the penis and to one lymph node in the groin; or
erectile tissue (spongy tissue that fills with blood to make an erection) and may have spread to one lymph node in the groin.
Stage III
In stage III, cancer has spread to:
connective tissue or erectile tissue of the penis and to more than one lymph node on one or both sides of the groin; or
the urethra or prostate, and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes on one or both sides of the groin.
Stage IV
In stage IV, cancer has spread:
to tissues near the penis and may have spread to lymph nodes in the groin or pelvis; or
anywhere in or near the penis and to one or more lymph nodes deep in the pelvis or groin; or
to distant parts of the body.
Recurrent penile cancer
Recurrent penile cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the penis or in other parts of the body.

Treatment option overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with penile cancer.
Different types of treatments are available for patients with penile cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Three types of standard treatment are used:
Surgery
Surgery is the most common treatment for all stages of penile cancer. A doctor may remove the cancer using one of the following operations:
Mohs microsurgery: A procedure in which the tumor is cut from the skin in thin layers. During the surgery, the edges of the tumor and each layer of tumor removed are viewed through a microscope to check for cancer cells. Layers continue to be removed until no more cancer cells are seen. This type of surgery removes as little normal tissue as possible and is often used to remove cancer on the skin. It is also called Mohs surgery.
Laser surgery: A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor.
Cryosurgery: A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy.
Circumcision: Surgery to remove part or all of the foreskin of the penis.
Wide local excision: Surgery to remove only the cancer and some normal tissue around it.
Amputation of the penis: Surgery to remove part or all of the penis. If part of the penis is removed, it is a partial penectomy. If all of the penis is removed, it is a total penectomy.
Lymph nodes in the groin may be taken out during surgery.
Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.

Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly onto the skin (topical chemotherapy) or into the spinal column, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

Topical chemotherapy may be used to treat stage 0 penile cancer.
New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.
This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied.

Biologic therapy
Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy. Topical biologic therapy may be used to treat stage 0 penile cancer.
Radiosensitizers
Radiosensitizers are drugs that make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. Combining radiation therapy with radiosensitizers helps kill more tumor cells.
Sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by surgery
Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the removal of the sentinel lymph node during surgery. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a tumor. It is the first lymph node the cancer is likely to spread to from the tumor. A radioactive substance and/or blue dye is injected near the tumor. The substance or dye flows through the lymph ducts to the lymph nodes. The first lymph node to receive the substance or dye is removed. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells. If cancer cells are not found, it may not be necessary to remove more lymph nodes. After the sentinel lymph node biopsy, the surgeon removes the cancer.
Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.
For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.
Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.
Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.
Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.
Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.
Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials. These have been retrieved from NCI's listing of clinical trials.

Follow-up tests may be needed.

Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. This is sometimes called re-staging.
Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.

Treatment options by stage

Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ)
Treatment of stage 0 may be one of the following:
Mohs microsurgery.
Topical chemotherapy.
Topical biologic therapy.
Laser surgery.
Cryosurgery.
Check for clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage 0 penile cancer.

Stage I penile cancer
If the cancer is only in the foreskin, wide local excision and circumcision may be the only treatment needed.
Treatment of stage I penile cancer may include the following:
Surgery (partial or total penectomy with or without removal of lymph nodes in the groin).
External or internal radiation therapy.
Mohs microsurgery.

A clinical trial of laser therapy.
This summary section refers to specific treatments under study in clinical trials, but it may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Check for clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage I penile cancer.

Stage II penile cancer

Treatment of stage II penile cancer may include the following:
Surgery (partial or total penectomy, with or without removal of lymph nodes in the groin).
External or internal radiation therapy followed by surgery.
A clinical trial of sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by surgery.

A clinical trial of laser surgery.
This summary section refers to specific treatments under study in clinical trials, but it may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Check for clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage II penile cancer.

Stage III penile cancer

Treatment of stage III penile cancer may include the following:
Surgery (penectomy and removal of lymph nodes in the groin) with or without radiation therapy.
Radiation therapy.
A clinical trial of sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by surgery.
A clinical trial of radiosensitizers.
A clinical trial of chemotherapy before or after surgery.
Check for clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage III penile cancer.

Stage IV penile cancer

Treatment of stage IV penile cancer is usually palliative (to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life). Treatment may include the following:
Surgery (wide local excision and removal of lymph nodes in the groin).
Radiation therapy.
A clinical trial of chemotherapy before or after surgery.
Check for clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage IV penile cancer.

Treatment options for recurrent penile cancer

Treatment of recurrent penile cancer may include the following:
Surgery (penectomy).
Radiation therapy.
A clinical trial of biologic therapy.
A clinical trial of chemotherapy.
Check for clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with recurrent penile cancer.

Get More Information From NCI

Call 1-800-4-CANCER
For more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.

Chat online
The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer.

Write to us
For more information from the NCI, please write to this address:

NCI Public Inquiries Office
Suite 3036A
6116 Executive Boulevard, MSC8322
Bethesda, MD 20892-8322

Search the NCI Web site
The NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support and resources for cancer patients and their families. For a quick search, use the search box in the upper right corner of each Web page. The results for a wide range of search terms will include a list of "Best Bets," editorially chosen Web pages that are most closely related to the search term entered.

There are also many other places to get materials and information about cancer treatment and services. Hospitals in your area may have information about local and regional agencies that have information on finances, getting to and from treatment, receiving care at home, and dealing with problems related to cancer treatment.










Treatment Penis Cancer with the soursop fruit - Điềutrị ung thư dương vật với mảng cầu Xiêm

Treatment of penile cancer varies, depending on the location and severity of tumors: Chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy.
Here is herb that can be used to overcome penis cancer :
A study at Purdue University show that the soursop fruit is able to kill cancer cells effectively.

healing cancer herbal cancer treatment herbal remedy for cancer herbal treatment for cancer herbs herbs for cancer liver cancer micronutrients prostate cancer skin cancer Herb for Penis Cancer

Because, based on data reported by the, efficacy and benefits of fruit in Spain known as graviola, or with an English name, soursop is hidden by many pharmaceutical companies in the U.S..

Well, based on data and research results, or soursop soursop natural killer cells are recognized as miraculous cancer with 10,000 times more powerful than the chemo therapy. So, why this information be overlooked and not socialized to the public?

This is due more to the business interests of the pharmaceutical world in order to fund research that issued a very large, for many years, may return in advance plus generous benefits by making a graviola tree as raw material for synthetic drugs and medicine sold to the world market.

Concern was given a lot of people have died in vain and pathetic, because the malignancy of cancer, while the giant companies, the drug maker with a turnover of billions of dollars in sealed secret miracle tree graviola.


2 comments:

  1. fucoidan nhật bản hỗ trợ bệnh ung thư rất tốt. Liên hệ

    muahangnhat.net
    Chuyên bán bán thuốc fucoidan Nhật bản chữa trị bệnh ung thư hiệu quả tại TPHCM

    ReplyDelete
  2. Ung thư cổ tử cung là một căn bệnh rất nguy hiểm có thể đe dọa mạng sống của các chị em phụ nữ. Mọi người thường mách nhau những phương pháp dân gian để trợ giúp chữa ung thư cổ tử cung hữu hiệu hơn trong đó có phương pháp dùng thảo dược lá đu đủ. Các chị em có thể tìm hiểu phương thức này phối hợp với phương pháp chữa trị Tây y để giúp khắc phục tình trạng bệnh của mình.

    ReplyDelete

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